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A dietary approach to prostate health

A dietary approach to prostate health

A dietary approach to prostate health

The awareness of men’s health has become more visible in recent years with the help and awareness driven by organisations such as the Movember Foundation, which have made the topic more accessible with their brilliant approach that resonates perfectly with men of all ages.

Prostate health

There are numerous health issues related to men, which encompass both mental and physical health and include conditions such as infertility, impotence, depression, overweight and those related to the prostate. Despite the raised awareness, many men still find it difficult or embarrassing to seek help and this is heavily influenced by social stigma, which is a key consideration in the promotion of men’s heath as it creates a barrier to men seeking help and advice.

Prostate health is unique to men and is typically correlated with age given that conditions associated with it mostly affect male baby boomers (aged 54-74 years) and Gen X (aged 39-53 years).  Diet and lifestyle have a key role to play in prostate and many other areas of health and establishing good habits from an earlier age will pave the way to better health in the long-term.

What is the prostate?

The prostate is a small gland about the size of a walnut, which surrounds the tube (urethra) responsible for carrying urine out of the body and also secretes fluid that nourishes and protects sperm.

Common prostate health complaints include benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or enlarged prostate.  The prostate gland naturally continues to grow with age but can cause troublesome symptoms in men with BPH, which make it difficult to urinate and empty the bladder.  Other prostate heath conditions include prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate, which can occur from the age of 30) and prostate cancer, which incurs more than 40,000 newly diagnosed cases every year in the UK making it the most common form of cancer amongst men.

Symptoms of both BPH and prostate cancer are similar given they are both related to an enlarged prostate and include:

  • Frequent urination
  • Weak or interrupted urine flow or the need to strain to empty the bladder
  • The urge to urinate frequently at night
  • Blood in the urine
  • Blood in the seminal fluid

Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is a big health issue amongst men but is slow to develop meaning symptoms may not occur for many years until the prostate is large enough to affect urination.  An enlarged prostate does not mean you have cancer, but the symptoms shouldn’t be ignored.  The causes of prostate cancer are largely unknown, but the risk is increased beyond the age of fifty and for reasons as yet unclear the disease appears to be more common in men of African-Caribbean or African descent.  There also seems to be a slight increased risk in men with a family history of prostate cancer.

A reliable method of screening for prostate cancer is yet unavailable and early detection relies on vigilance about symptoms and regular check-ups with your GP.  A blood test called prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) test is available but is not specific to prostate cancer and PSA levels can be raised as a result of other non-cancerous conditions.  If you have raised PSA levels, then you may be offered an MRI scan to help further diagnose the risk of cancer.

Men’s attitudes to health

Research has shown how men are less likely to engage and react to healthcare information or recall the warning signs of cancer when compared to women (1,2). The cultural script of men has imprinted a definition of masculinity characterised by a need to be tough, brave, strong and self-reliant, which can influence their attitudes towards seeking help and overall self-care. Phrases such as ‘man up’ are now common place in our lingo used by men and women alike and are a good example of how this characterisation of men continues to be enforced.

Boys from an early age are often led to believe that if they don’t exhibit these characteristics of the ‘traditional’ male then they will in some way lose their status and respect as men, which contributes to many of the issues surrounding men’s health.  Kids story books and animated movies are riddled with such characterisations of princes and superheroes relied upon to save the day, which is often (rightly) fiercely protested against by women seeking equality but is less considered as to the impact on young men and the contribution to social stigma putting pressure on men to behave in a certain way.

The importance of diet on health

Research convincingly shows that people who eat a healthy diet are more likely to live longer and have a reduced risk of disease, but the link between diet, food and specific health conditions is often less clear.  It’s the overall diet that has the greatest impact on health but in the case of prostate health there are some studies to suggest that certain foods and nutrients may be particularly beneficial.  Most of these benefits can be achieved by eating a healthy balanced diet but introducing certain foods may be worth paying some consideration to.

How can diet help with prostate health?

I don’t want to sound boring, but you have to get the basics right first.  The modern dialogue around nutrition is overly focused on individual nutrients and foods, whilst the nature of the current wellness landscape gives more credence to the latest fads and diet trends over the basic principles of healthy eating.  Focusing on eating a balanced diet can help insure micronutrient intake and also help you to maintaining a healthy body weight, which is one of the best things you can do to reduce your risk of ill health.  This is particularly relevant to prostate cancer as findings from the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) have shown a strong association between being overweight or obese and the risk of developing the disease (3).

Start with the basics

Start by eating three meals daily and cutting out snacks unless you really need to include them.  Pile the veggies high, limit your intake of red meat, switch to ‘brown’ carbs and wholegrains, choose healthy fats (olive oil, avocados, nuts, seeds), cut back on sugar, watch your salt intake and serve small portions of food to help manage your weight.

Eat more salmon

Oily fish such as salmon are the richest source of omega 3 fatty acids, which we need to obtain from the diet.  Intake of oily fish in the UK is low with very few people including this food in their diet.  Omega 3 fatty acids have been shown to help reduce inflammation in the body, which may help to relieve the symptoms of BPH.  Salmon fillets can be marinated to make them more interesting or added to dishes such as fish pie, curry and salads.

Get more fibre in your diet

High-fibre foods include fruits (fresh and dried), vegetables, wholegrains, nuts, seeds, beans, pulses and lentils. According to the National Diet and Nutrition Survey only 13% of men meet the recommended dietary guidance of 30g per day and this is most likely due to choosing refined carbohydrates, not eating enough vegetables and ignoring foods such as beans and pulses (4).  Dietary fibre can help to reduce the risk of constipation, which can put pressure on the bladder and worsen symptoms of BPH.  Eating more fruits and vegetables is probably the easiest and most effective change you can make to your diet to significantly improve your health.  Many foods in this group contain a good source of vitamin C, which is also thought to help relieve the symptoms associated with BPH (5). Most of us get more than enough vitamin C in our diet but foods such as berries, peppers, citrus fruits, broccoli and cauliflower are good sources.

Cut down on fizzy drinks, alcohol, caffeine and artificial sweeteners

You should try and avoid drinking anything up to two hours before bedtime to lessen the need to use the bathroom during the night. Fizzy drinks, alcohol, caffeine and artificial sweeteners can all irritate the bladder and worsen the symptoms of BPH so you should try limiting your intake of these types of drinks.

Eat foods rich in beta-sitosterol

Foods rich in a plant substance called beta-sitosterol have been shown to reduce the symptoms of BPH including urinary flow and volume and may help to lessen the effects of inflammation and prostate growth. Foods rich in beta-sitosterol include seeds, extra virgin olive oil, avocado, nuts, raw cacao and fresh coriander.

Include soy foods as part of your diet

There’s a little research to suggest that phytoestrogens (plant compounds that mimic the effect of the hormone oestrogen) found in soy called isoflavones may help to relive the symptoms of BPH.  Soy isoflavones can be found in foods such as tofu, soya milk, soya yoghurt, miso, tamari, edamame beans and tempeh.  These foods have also been shown to help reduce cholesterol, making them a healthy addition to the diet and are a great alternative to animal protein for those looking to go meat-free. Swapping dairy products for soy is the simplest way to start including it in your diet.

Soy is one of the most controversial foods and you may have heard of the research linking it to the growth of ‘man boobs’.  Firstly, the effect of plant oestrogens on hormonal balance is weak and secondly, the research involved the consumption of unrealistically huge amounts of soy milk every day.

Eat plenty of foods rich in zinc

This mineral is very important for men, who have a higher daily requirement than women.  Zinc is essential for male reproductive health, which includes proper prostate function.  Research has suggested that men suffering with BPH and prostate cancer may have lower levels of zinc, but this is not considered a risk factor for either condition.  You can get plenty of zinc in your diet by eating foods such as shellfish, meat, pulses, beans, wholegrains, nuts, seeds and eggs.

Red fruits and vegetables

Red fruits and vegetables are rich in the antioxidant phytonutrient lycopene.  Tomatoes are the richest source, especially when cooked or processed but other foods include red peppers, pink grapefruit and watermelon.  Lycopene has long been associated with reducing the risk of prostate cancer but updated findings from the WCRF have downgraded the evidence to support this link from ‘strong’ to ‘no conclusion possible’ in light of the current available research (3).  Lycopene may still be beneficial for prostate health and these new findings don’t mean that it’s suddenly redundant, but only that the new research has made it more difficult to establish a link to prostate cancer.

A healthy balanced diet is important for all areas of health, which includes that of the prostate.  Focusing on food and managing your weight are significant ways to help promote good prostate health and the sooner you adopt healthy eating habits the better.  All men over fifty should be vigilant about recognising the signs of prostate cancer and seek regular check-ups with their GP as a habitual part of their lifestyle.

For more advice on prostate cancer visit the NHS website here.

For more information on mens health and diet try reading these blogs

An in-depth look at the current state of men’s health in the UK 

The blokes guide to going vegan 

Cooking for prostate health

How easy is it to get your 10-a-day?

Quorn, cauliflower and sultana curry recipe 

Super green stir-fry with smoked tofu recipe 

 

References 

  1. https://jech.bmj.com/content/61/12/1086
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2790705/
  3. https://www.wcrf.org/dietandcancer/prostate-cancer
  4. https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/ndns-results-from-years-7-and-8-combined
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19716283
An in-depth look at the current state of mens health in the UK

An in-depth look at the current state of mens health in the UK

An in-depth look at the current state of men’s health in the UK

Regardless of what sex you are it’s been shown time and again that diet and lifestyle choices have a significant impact on your health and reduce the risk of disease.  Men and women share similar risk factors for ill health and weight is a concern for everyone, but some conditions are more sex-specific to men.  Targeting men’s health often requires a different approach to women and given the slight disparity in attitudes between the sexes, it’s important that awareness continues to grow to help break taboo’s and create an environment that men feel comfortable enough in to seek help when needed and make behaviour changes that can significantly improve their health.

Apologies as this is quite a hefty blog, but for my own curiosity I just wanted to put everything about men’s health into one place to provide insight and the latest research findings to give a good overview of the health landscape according to men.

This includes:

  1. What a typical male diet looks like in the UK?
  2. How overweight men are in the UK?
  3. What lifestyle choices men are making in the UK?
  4. The most common causes of premature death amongst men in the UK
  5. Heart disease amongst men in the UK
  6. Mental health amongst men in the UK
  7. Men’s attitudes towards health and how they access health services

1.What a typical male diet looks like in the UK?  

The National Diet and Nutrition Survey in the UK has shown that both men and women share similar dietary characteristics (1). Both groups eat enough protein and meet the guidelines for total fat but consume too much sugar and saturated fat.  Both sexes also fail to eat enough fibre and very few meet the recommended 5-a-day guidance or eat enough oily fish.  Fewer men than women have micronutrient insufficiencies, but low levels of vitamin D are shared between the sexes, especially during the winter months.

Dietary findings for men (1)

  • The average energy intake is 2091 calories.
  • The average intake of protein is 87.4g, which is 1.5 times the RNI of 55g per day. Protein requirements differ depending on health status and exercise, but the average is around 0.75g per kg of body weight.  Most of the protein in the diet comes from meat and meat dishes (37%).  Twenty three percent comes from cereals and cereal products, whilst 13% comes from milk and milk products.
  • The average intake of total fat is 76.6g per day, which equates to 32.6% of energy intake. This falls within the guidance of no more than 35% of energy intake.  Most of the fat in the diet comes from meat and meat products (24%).  A similar amount (21%) comes from cereals and cereal products including biscuits, cakes and puddings.  Milk and milk products account for 12% of total fat intake.
  • The average intake of saturated fat is 27.5g per day, which equates to 11.6% of energy intake.This exceeds the guidance of no more than 10% of energy intake.  The main source of saturated fat in the diet is from meat and meat products (24%). Twenty one percent comes from cereal and cereal products that includes biscuits, cakes and puddings.  The same percentage comes from milk and milk products, the majority of which comes from cheese.  Nine percent comes from fat spreads with 6% attributed to butter.
  • Sat fat (21% cereals and cereal products – 5% biscuits,4% cakes, 1% puddings), 21% (milk and milk products – 9% cheese), 3% (eggs and egg dishes), 9% (fat and fat spreads – 6% butter), 24% (meat and meat products), 3% (fish and fish dishes), 6% (veg and potatoes – 3% chips), 1% (savoury snacks), 2% (nuts and seeds), 5% (sugar and confectionary – 4% chocolate)
  • The average intake of ‘free’ sugars is 64.3g (12.8 tsp) per day. This is more than twice the guidance of no more than 30g (6 tsp) per day.  The main source of ‘free’ sugars in the diet is from sugar and confectionary (25%), most of which is from table sugar and sweet spreads.  Twenty four percent of ‘free’ sugars comes from cereals and cereal products that includes breakfast cereals, biscuits, cakes and puddings.  Non-alcoholic drinks are also a big contributor with 6% coming from fruit juice and 14% from soft drinks.
  • The average intake of fibre is 20.7g per day. This is just a third of the guidance of 30g per day and only 13% of men manage to achieve this.  The main source of fibre in the diet is from cereals and cereal products (38%), which includes pizza, pasta, rice and bread (more men choose white bread over wholemeal). Thirty eight percent of fibre in the diet comes from vegetables and potatoes, with 7% coming from chips. Twelve percent of fibre in the diet comes from meat products, which are breaded or include pastry or potatoes.
  • The average intake of fruit and vegetables is 4.2 portions, which is below the recommended 5-a-day. Only 29% of men manage to eat 5-a-day.

The micronutrients (vitamins and minerals)

Nutrient Average intake % RNI % below LRNI Key food sources
Vitamin A 921mcg 132% 16% 28% vegetables, 15% milk and milk products, 16% meat and meat products, 11% cereals and cereal products
Vitamin B1 (riboflavin) 1.76mg 136% 6% 27% milk and milk products, 20% cereals and cereal products, 17% meat and meat products
Folate 267mcg 134% 3% 27% cereal and cereal products, 26% vegetables, 10% meat and meat products.
Vitamin D (food sources) 2.9mcg 29% 30% meat and meat products, 19% egg and egg dishes, 17% fish and fish dishes, 15% cereals and cereal products
Iron 11.6mg 134% 2% 38% cereals and cereal products, 21% meat and meat products, 15% vegetables
Calcium 897mg 107% 11% 31% cereals and cereal products, 15% meat and meat products, 9% milk and milk products
Magnesium 302mg 101% 14% 31% meat and meat products, 27% cereals and cereal products, 16% vegetables, 12% egg and egg dishes
Potassium 3145mg 90% 11% 24% vegetables, 18% meat and meat products, 15% cereals and cereal products, 10% milk and milk products
Iodine 172mcg 123% 9% 34% milk and milk products, 12% cereals and cereal products, 10% fish and fish products, 10% meat and meat products
Selenium 55mcg 74% 25% 32% meat and meat dishes, 27% cereal and cereal products, 15% fish and fish dishes, 9% egg and egg dishes
Zinc 9.7mg 102% 7% 34% meat and meat dishes, 25% cereals and cereal products, 14% milk and milk products, 11% vegetables

 

2.How overweight are men in the UK?

The majority of the male population in the UK are either overweight or obese (2,3,4,5).  Obesity is both a disease and risk factor for many other diseases.  Being overweight or obese increases the risk of having high cholesterol, high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes, which are all risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD).  Obesity also increases the risk of joint problems, lower back problems, deep vein thrombosis, colon cancer and erectile dysfunction.  Losing and maintaining a healthy weight can have a significant impact on health and reduce the risk of disease.

The prevalence of overweight and obesity vary throughout the UK but in general, rates are higher amongst men.

England (2)

  • Over 60% of men are overweight or obese.
  • Men (65.7%) are more likely to be overweight or obese than women (57.1%).

Wales (3)

  • Twenty three percent of adults are obese and 36% overweight.
  • Sixty five percent of men are obese or overweight compared to 53% women.

Scotland (4)

  • Sixty five percent of adults are overweight and 29% of these are obese.
  • Sixty seven percent of men were overweight or obese compared to 63% of women.

Northern Ireland (5)

  • Sixty percent of adults are overweight or obese (34% overweight and 26% obese).
  • Males (65%) were more likely to be overweight or obese compared to females (57%).

3.What lifestyle choices men are making in the UK?

Diet is important but in terms of health it co-exists with the lifestyle choices we make which include physical activity, smoking and drinking.  A sedentary lifestyle can increase the risk of being overweight, which is a risk factor for disease.  Exercise plays a key part in maintaining a healthy weight and also helps to maintain muscle mass, flexibility and bone strength as well as being good for mental health.

Smoking has been proven to cause cancer and respiratory conditions, whilst excessive drinking is known to be a risk factor for certain cancers and liver disease.

Physical activity in men

The government guidelines suggest that we do at least 150 minutes per week of moderate physical activity in bouts of at least 10 minutes, which equates to 30 minutes on at least 5 days.  Alternatively, it’s suggested that 75 minutes of vigorous activity spread over the week will have the same health benefits.  Moderate physical activity is defined as raising your heart beat whilst still being able to carry on a conversation such as brisk walking or cycling.  Vigorous activity is defined as increasing your heart to beat rapidly, making it much more difficult to carry on a conversation such as running, swimming or football (6).

In the UK, men:

71% met the guidelines

10% some activity1

3% low activity2

16% inactive3

  1. Some activity: 60-149 minutes MPA pw or 30-74 minutes VPA pw or an equivalent combination of these.
  2. Low activity: 30-59 minutes MPA pw or 15-29 minutes VPA pw or an equivalent combination of these
  3. Inactive: Less than 30 minutes MPA pw or less than 15 minutes VPA pw or an equivalent combination of these

Smoking amongst men in the UK

According to findings from the Office of National Statistics (7):

  • In the UK, 17% of men smoke compared to 13.3% of women.
  • The highest proportion of smokers are aged between 25 and 34 years (19.7%).
  • 1 in 4 people in routine and manual occupations smoke compared to just 1 in 10 people in managerial and professional occupations.
  • 5% of people in the UK currently use and e-cigarette (vape) – 2.8 million people
  • 5% of men report vaping compared to 4.6% of women and the highest proportion of vapers are aged between 35 and 49 years.
  • In the UK, 60.8% of people aged 16 years and over who currently smoke said they wanted to quit and 59.5% of those who have ever smoked said they had quit.
  • The main reason for vaping is to help stop smoking (48.8%).
  • Only 0.4% of people who have never smoked reported that they currently vape.

Drinking in the UK

Guidance around drinking is no more than 14 units per week for both men and women (8).

125ml glass of wine = 1.4 units

25ml shot of spirit (37.5% ABV) = 1 unit

½ pint of lager (4%) = 1 units

According to the ONS (9):

  • Men are more likely to drink than women – 9% of men compared to 52.4% of women.
  • Men are also less likely to abstain from drinking as 17% of men and 22% of women said they had not drunk in the last year.
  • 53% of men said their alcohol consumption was no more than 14 units per week compared with 62% of women.
  • 10% of men said their alcohol consumption was more than 14 units per week but less than 21 units per week compared to 7% of women.
  • 12% of men said their average alcohol consumption was more than 21 units but less that 35 units per week compared to 6% of women
  • 4% of men said their average alcohol consumption was more than 35 units but less that 50 units per week compared with 2% of women.
  • 5% of men said their average alcohol consumption was more than 50 units per week compared to 2% of women.

4.The most common causes of premature death amongst men in the UK

  • More men than women die each year – 1156.5 compared with 863.8 deaths per 100K people (10)
  • In the UK one in five men (19%) dies before the age of 65 years (10)

Leading causes of death in 2015 – taken from findings published in 2017 (11)

Leading causes of death by age group for males in England, 2015 taken from findings published in 2017 (11)

 

5.Heart disease amongst men in the UK (12)

  • Heart and circulatory disease cause more than a quarter (26 per cent) of all deaths in the UK; that’s nearly 160,000 deaths each year – an average of 435 people each day or one death every three minutes.
  • There are around 7 million people living with heart and circulatory disease in the UK: 3.5 million men and 3.5 million women.
  • Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common type of cardiovascular disease.
  • Coronary heart disease is the most common cause of heart attack. In the UK there are 188,000 hospital visits each year due to heart attacks: that’s one every three minutes.
  • An estimated 915,000 people alive in the UK today (640,000 men and 275,000 women) have survived a heart attack.
  • Over half a million people in the UK are living with heart failure.
  • There are more than 30,000 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in the UK each year. The overall survival rate in the UK is less than 1 in 10.

6.Mental health amongst men in the UK (13)

  • Over 40% of adults think they have had a diagnosable mental health condition at some point in their life (35.2% of men and 51.2% of women).
  • A fifth of men (19.5%) and a third of women (33.7%) have had diagnoses confirmed by professionals.
  • In 2014, 19.7% of people in the UK aged 16 and older showed symptoms of anxiety or depression – a 1.5% increase from 2013. This percentage was higher among females (22.5%) than males (16.8%).

As far as men are concerned:

  • Just over three out of four suicides (76%) are by men and suicide is the biggest cause of death for men under 35 (14).
  • 12.5% of men in the UK are suffering from one of the common mental health disorders (15).
  • Men are three times more likely than women to become alcohol dependent (8.7% of men are alcohol dependent compared to 3.3% of women (15).
  • Men are more likely to use (and die from) illegal drugs (15).
  • Men are less likely to access psychological therapies than women. Only 36% of referrals to IAPT (Increasing Access to Psychological Therapies) are men (16).
  • Over three quarters of people who kill themselves are men (17)
  • Men report significantly lower life satisfaction than women in the Government’s national well-being survey – with those aged 45 to 59 reporting the lowest levels of life satisfaction (17).
  • 73% of adults who ‘go missing’ are men (18).
  • 87% of rough sleepers are men (19).
  • Men are nearly three times more likely than women to become alcohol dependent (20).
  • Men are three times as likely to report frequent drug use than women (4.2% and 1.4% respectively) and more than two thirds of drug-related deaths occur in men.
  • Men make up 95% of the prison population 72% of male prisoners suffer from two or more mental disorders.
  • Men are nearly 50% more likely than women to be detained and treated compulsorily as psychiatric inpatients (21)
  • Men have measurably lower access to the social support of friends, relatives and community (21)
  • Men commit 86% of violent crime (21)
  • Boys are around three times more likely to receive a permanent or fixed period exclusion than girls (22).
  • Boys are performing less well than girls at all levels of education. In 2013 only 55.6% of boys achieved 5 or more grade A*-C gcses including English and mathematics, compared to 65.7% of girls (23)

The Men’s Health Forum suggests that these statistics indicate that male emotional and psychological distress may sometimes emerge in ways that do not fit comfortably within conventional approaches to diagnosis. They also show that men may be more likely to lack some of the known precursors of good mental health, such as a positive engagement with education or the emotional support of friends and family.

A picture begins to emerge of a potentially sizeable group of men who cope less well than they might:

  • These men may fail to recognise or act on warning signs and may be unable or unwilling to seek help from support services.
  • At the further end of the spectrum they may rely on unwise, unsustainable self-management strategies that are damaging not only to themselves but also to those around them.
  • Such a picture would broadly parallel what is already known about men’s poorer physical health.

7.Men’s attitudes towards health and how they access health services

Health literacy is the ability to obtain, read, understand, and use healthcare information in order to make appropriate health decisions and follow instructions for treatment.  There is evidence that men have lower levels of health literacy than women.

  • One study found that men were than twice as likely as women to have inadequate health literacy (24).
  • An analysis of people with coronary heart disease in south London found that those with low health literacy were more likely to be male, from a non-white ethnic group, live in a more deprived area, have spent fewer years in education, and were less likely to be employed (25).
  • A large study of British adults (970 males and 1246 females) found that women were more likely than men to recall seven out of nine cancer warning signs (26).
  • According to a National Pharmacy Association study, more men than women admit that their understanding of medicines is poor (23.1% against 15.6% women) (27).
  • Men are twice as likely as women to take a new prescription medicine without first reading the patient information leaflet or seeking professional advice (10.9% of men against 5.1% women) (27).
  • Men’s purchase of prescription-only drugs without medical advice, usually via the Internet, is of increasing concern because of the risks of toxicity and missed diagnoses (27).
  • The percentage of men purchasing prescription-only medications without a prescription via the Internet increases to 67% when considering medications for erectile dysfunction specifically (28).

Men and women display different attitudes towards health and illness.  We have a cultural script about masculinity that tells men they need to be tough, brave, strong and self-reliant. It’s exemplified in phrases like “be a man” and “man up”. Men learn from an early age if they don’t act in this tough, masculine way they lose their status and respect as men.

One study carried out in 2016 found men who buy into the traditional cultural script about masculinity and believe they must be brave and self-reliant in order to be respected, had more barriers to seeking care compared to those who did not endorse these beliefs.  Men validating these beliefs about masculinity and enacting them in their own lives were less likely to seek preventative care and are more likely to delay care when they experienced injury or illness (29).

This all has a huge influence on the attitude’s men have towards their health.

  • Health is often socially constructed as a feminine concern and men therefore have to behave as if they are unconcerned about their health if they wish to publicly sustain a ‘real’ male identity (30).
  • Many men appear to legitimise health service usage, only when a perceived threshold of ill health has been exceeded. There is also a tendency amongst men to play down symptoms or to view potentially serious symptoms as simply signs of growing old (30).
  • Fear surrounding the potential loss of masculinity may result in a façade of control and stoicism, instead of honesty about reporting symptoms and accepting interventions, or openness about feelings and insecurities associated with particular illnesses (30).
  • Risk-taking behaviour is associated with masculinity and is, therefore, more common in males than females (30).
  • A King’s Fund study that looked at four behaviours – smoking, drinking, diet and exercise – found that men were more likely to participate in a combination of three or four risky behaviours (31).

Men’s health is unique to their gender and as such the approach to tackling the issues men face needs to take account of their risk of disease and their attitudes towards their wellness.

 

References

  1. https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/ndns-results-from-years-7-and-8-combined
  2. Https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/health-survey-for-england-2016-findings-and-trend-tables
  3. Https://gov.wales/statistics-and-research/national-survey/?Tab=current&lang=en
  4. Https://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Health/scottish-health-survey
  5. Https://www.health-ni.gov.uk/publications/health-survey-northern-ireland-first-results
  6. Https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/uk-physical-activity-guidelines
  7. Https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/healthandlifeexpectancies/bulletins/adultsmokinghabitsingreatbritain/2017
  8. https://www.drinkaware.co.uk/alcohol-facts/alcoholic-drinks-units/
  9. https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/drugusealcoholandsmoking/bulletins/opinionsandlifestylesurveyadultdrinkinghabitsingreatbritain/2017/previous/v1
  10. https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/deaths/bulletins/deathsregistrationsummarytables/2015
  11. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/health-profile-for-england/chapter-2-major-causes-of-death-and-how-they-have-changed
  12. https://www.bhf.org.uk/for-professionals/press-centre/facts-and-figures
  13. https://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/sites/default/files/fundamental-facts-about-mental-health-2016.pdf
  14. https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/deaths/bulletins/suicidesintheunitedkingdom/2016registration
  15. https://digital.nhs.uk/catalogue/PUB17712/alc-eng-2015-rep.pdf
  16. https://digital.nhs.uk/data-and-information/data-collections-and-data-sets/data-sets/improving-access-to-psychological-therapies-data-set/improving-access-to-psychological-therapies-data-set-reports
  17. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20160107060820/http:/www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171778_351100.pdf
  18. https://www.york.ac.uk/inst/spru/pubs/pdf/MissingPersons.pdf
  19. https://www.crisis.org.uk/ending-homelessness/rough-sleeping/
  20. https://digital.nhs.uk/catalogue/PUB14184/alc-eng-2014-rep.pdf
  21. https://digital.nhs.uk/catalogue/PUB12994/drug-misu-eng-2013-rep.pdf
  22. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20160106231734/http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/crime-stats/crime-statistics/focus-on-violent-crime-and-sexual-offences–2012-13/rpt-chapter-1—overview-of-violent-crime-and-sexual-offences.html#tab-Profile-of-Offenders-Involved-in-Violent-Crimes
  23. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130320141729/http://www.education.gov.uk/researchandstatistics/statistics/a00195931/
  24. https://jech.bmj.com/content/61/12/1086
  25. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3549254/
  26. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2790705/
  27. https://www.npa.co.uk
  28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3069491/
  29. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25293967
  30. https://www.bmj.com/content/343/bmj.d7397
  31. https://www.kingsfund.org.uk/sites/default/files/field/field_publication_file/clustering-of-unhealthy-behaviours-over-time-aug-2012.pdf

 

Foods high in zinc

Foods high in zinc

Highest foods and greatest sources of zinc (download as a PDF Foods high in zinc)

Zinc is an essential mineral so you need to obtain it from the diet as your body cannot make it.  This mineral is involved in approximately 100 enzymatic reactions in the body and plays a role in immunity, protein synthesis, wound healing, DNA synthesis and cell division.  Zinc is also required for a proper sense of taste and smell as well as growth and development during pregnancy, childhood and adolescence.

This mineral is essential for men’s health.  Zinc plays a role in fertility by helping to improve the quality of sperm (1).  Research has shown that men with lower levels of seminal zinc had lower sperm counts as well as more abnormal sperm, which may be due to the protection of zinc against oxidative damage.

Zinc may also help to protect the health of the prostate.  Men with low levels of zinc in their diet tend to have higher chances of developing and enlarged prostate, which is known as benign prostate hyperplasia or BHP (2).

Zinc has long been associated with immunity and the common cold and some evidence points towards the benefits of this mineral in lessoning the symptoms by way of zinc lozenges (3).  Zinc also not only increases the production of white blood cells that fight infection, but also helps them fight more aggressively. It also increases killer cells that fight against cancer and helps white cells release more antibodies.  Zinc increases the number of infection-fighting T-cells, especially in elderly people who are often deficient in zinc and whose immune system may weaken with age (4).

Skin and hair health may also benefit from gleaning enough zinc from your diet.  Zinc plays an important role in overall skin health, and it may also treat eczema, psoriasis, dandruff, burns and boils (5).  This essential mineral also helps skin wounds heal faster.  Low intake of zinc has also been associated with hair loss (6)

Like many nutrients, zinc also acts as an antioxidant in the body.  Antioxidants help to reduce the damage done by excess free radicals that can increase cell aging and build up as a result of a poor diet, lifestyle and environmental factors. Antioxidants also play a role in reducing inflammation in the body.  Prolonged inflammation is thought to be at the root of many serious health conditions such as heart disease and cancer.

 

How much do you need?

UK Adult men require 9.5mg per day

UK Adult women require 7mg per day

 

Average intakes in the UK

Women consume more zinc than men

Most men and women have intakes above 100% of the RNI for zinc

9% of adult men have very low intakes of zinc

10% of teenage boys have very low intakes of zinc

 

Groups most at risk of deficiency  

The bioavailability of zinc from vegetarian diets is lower than from non-vegetarian diets because vegetarians do not eat meat, which is high in bioavailable zinc. Vegetarians and vegans also typically eat high levels of legumes and whole grains, which contain phytates that bind zinc and can inhibit its absorption.

Vegetarians can sometimes require more zinc than non-vegetarians. Certain food preparation techniques can help to reduce the binding of zinc by phytates and increase its bioavailability such as soaking beans, grains, and seeds in water for several hours before cooking them and allowing them to sit after soaking until sprouts form. Vegetarians and vegans can also increase their zinc intake by consuming more leavened grain products (such as bread) than unleavened products (such as crackers) because leavening partially breaks down the phytates; thus, the body absorbs more zinc from leavened grains than unleavened grains.

Alcoholics can have low levels of zinc because alcohol decreases intestinal absorption and increases urinary excretion of zinc.  Alcoholism can also affect food intake, which can limit the amount of zinc consumed.

Be aware that high intakes of zinc intakes can inhibit copper absorption, sometimes producing copper deficiency and associated anemia so be wary of supplement containing very high doses of this mineral.

 

How to increase your intake of zinc 

  • Add seeds as a topping to salads, cereals and porridge
  • Include plenty of dried herbs and spices to your meals
  • Include shellfish in your diet, which can be used to make salads, stews and stir-fry’s
  • Include plenty of pulses and lentils in your diet, which can be added to salads, stews, casseroles, soups or made into dips
  • Cocoa powder is high in zinc so the occasional treat of high cocoa dark chocolate is a good source of try making a cup of cocoa or homemade nut milks flavoured with this ancient ingredient
  • Try switching to wholegrains such as breads, rice and pseudo grains such as quinoa
  • Oats are high in zinc and make great breakfasts or toppings for sweet dishes such as crumbles and even savoury toppings
  • Nuts and seeds are high in zinc so try making your own healthy granola or flapjacks
  • Go veggie a few times each week and swap meat for tofu or Quorn
  • Eggs are the breakfast of champions and also make a great snack when boiled (try serving with smoked paprika, celery salt or tabasco sauce)
  • Don’t skip breakfast! Even a small bowl of your favourite wholegrain cereal can add a useful source of zinc to the diet. You can also use cereals as savoury topping

 

Foods highest in zinc (data taken from McCance and Widdowson)

 

Food Portion size (g) Mg per serving Mg per 100g
Shellfish
Raw oysters 80 47.4 59.2
Boiled lobster 100 5.5 5.5
Boiled lobster 100 2.5 2.5
Cooked mussels 100 2.3 2.3
Boiled prawns 100 2.2 2.2
Sardines canned in oil 50 1.1 2.2
Anchovies canned in oil 10 0.3 3
Meat and offal
Fried calf’s liver 100 15.9 15.9
Lamb neck fillet grilled 100 6.4 6.4
Grilled sirloin steak 100 4.3 4.3
Fried chicken liver 100 3.8 3.8
Grilled pork steak 100 2.9 2.9
Roast turkey 100 2.5 2.5
Grilled gammon steak 100 2.2 2.2
Ham 100 1.8 1.8
Grilled back bacon 50 1.6 3.1
Roast chicken 100 1.5 1.5
Pulses
Cooked aduki beans 80 1.8 2.3
Tempeh 100 1.8 1.8
Cooked chickpeas 80 1.0 1.2
Cooked red kidney beans 80 0.8 1
Cooked pinto beans 80 0.8 1
Cooked lentils 80 0.8 1
Tofu 100 0.7 0.7
Miso 30 1.0 3.3
Grains
Quinoa 180 5.9 3.3
Wheatgerm 30 5.1 17
Wholegrain rice(boiled) 180 3.2 1.8
Wholemeal bread 80 1.3 1.6
Oats 50 1.2 2.3
Oatcakes 40 1.3 3.3
Dark rye flour 30 0.9 3
Cereals
All bran 40 2.4 6
Bran flakes 40 1.0 2.5
Shredded wheat 40 0.9 2.3
Muesli 40 0.9 2.3
Weetabix 40 0.8 2
Special K 40 0.8 2
Fruit n fibre 40 0.6 1.5
Cheese and eggs
Parmesan cheese 30 1.5 5.1
Eggs 100 1.3 1.3
Edam 30 1.1 3.8
Cheddar cheese 30 0.7 2.3
Brie 30 0.6 2
Goats cheese 30 0.3 1
Nuts and seeds
Cashew nuts 25 1.5 5.9
Pecan nuts 25 1.3 5.3
Brazil nuts 25 1.1 4.2
Peanut butter 30 1.1 3.5
Peanuts 25 0.9 3.5
Tahini 15 0.8 5.4
Almonds 25 0.8 3.2
Poppy seeds 5 0.4 8.5
Pumpkin seeds 5 0.3 6.6
Pine nuts  5 0.3 6.5
Cocoa powder 15 1.0 6.9
Sesame seeds  5 0.3 5.3
Sunflower seeds 5 0.3 5.1
Vegetables
Quorn 100 7.0 7
Dried mushrooms 40 1.9 4.8
Frozen peas 80 0.7 0.9
Seaweed (nori) 10 0.6 6.4
Asparagus 80 0.6 0.7
Spinach 80 0.6 0.7
Okra 80 0.5 0.6
Brussels sprouts 80 0.4 0.5
Sundried tomatoes  40 0.3 0.8
Mushrooms 80 0.3 0.4
Parsnips 80 0.2 0.3
Endive 80 0.2 0.2
Herbs and spices
Dried chervil 5 0.4 8.8
Fenugreek 5 0.3 6.9
Dried thyme 5 0.3 6.2
Dried basil 5 0.3 5.8
Mustard seeds 5 0.2 4.7
Dried oregano 5 0.2 4.4
Cumin seeds 5 0.2 4.2
Curry powder 5 0.2 3.7
Dried cardamom 5 0.1 2.6

 

    References

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19285597
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3114577/
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3136969/
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2702361/
  5. https://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/709152/
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3870206/

 

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