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What’s the best way to lose weight?

What’s the best way to lose weight?

What’s the best way to diet and lose weight?

During my many years working as a nutritionist I’ve always shied away from the topic of weight loss mostly because I think it’s a hugely complex topic, which requires input from many disciplines and a unique skill set held by dietitians and nutritionists who specialise in this area.

I can tell someone what and how much to eat and devise menu plans and shopping lists to fit in with their lifestyle and food budget, which in some cases has been successful. However, on the whole my experience of helping people to lose weight has been frustrating and enlightened me to the realisation that, ‘you can lead a horse to water, but you can’t make it drink’.  I know that if a client has me at their disposal to follow them around each day and cook every meal then i’ll get great results, but the reality is that when they leave, the onus is on them to make healthy food choices.

Motivation 

Losing weight takes a huge amount of motivation and commitment and the factors influencing food choice are hugely complex.  It drives me absolutely bloody bonkers when I hear people say that losing weight is simple and just a case of eating less and moving more.  This ignorance comes from a complete lack of understanding amongst those that have never had an issue with their weight.  The problem is that being overweight is very visible and conjures up an unfair image of indulgence or greed as well as being associated with many other social stigmas and unfortunately society often has very little appreciation for the wider issues involved.

Mindset

Mindset is a major component of losing weight and the psychological issues involved are becoming more apparent as being a key factor in compliance and long-term weight maintenance.  One very relevant factor in the aetiology of weight loss is the link between food and mood, which often manifests as an emotional crutch, hampering efforts to lose weight.  Some people put all their faith and commitment into diet plans to the point at which falling off the wagon represents a huge failure impacting on their ability to stick to the programme and sometimes results in binge eating and reverting back to old ways of eating.  Tackling the psychological effects of food is something that needs to be addressed if this is getting in your way of losing weight.

Decision to lose weight 

When it comes to losing weight, there are those that just want to shift a few pounds and others with a much greater amount of weight to lose to improve their health.  In my experience it can be more challenging to shift the last few pounds and those with less weight to lose tend to get drawn to the abundance of diet fads. Unfortunately, for many people, the decision to lose weight is often made as a result of a health diagnosis that puts things into perspective but the positive here is that it’s never too late to reap the benefits. Many of the risks associated with being overweight can have a major impact on someone’s lifespan but just as damaging is the effect on long-term wellness and the number of years living with poor health.  Being overweight or obese can mean living with joint pain, difficulty sleeping, tiredness, breathlessness and psychosocial issues such as depression, low self-esteem and feeling isolated, all of which make it more difficult to drum up the motivation to lose weight.  On top of this, many of the conditions that often accompany being overweight or obese involve medication, which can have unwanted side-effects and become a day-to-day burden.

No hard and fast rule 

There’s no hard and fast rule to losing weight and one size certainly doesn’t fit all.  The key to long-term success has little to do with the speed at which you lose weight, but the habit changes made along the way, which often dictate the chances of keeping the weight off.

Weight loss is a minefield and there are some brilliant nutritionists and dietitians out there that can offer support and guidance.  The support provided by weight loss groups such as Weight Watchers has also been shown to be a key factor in success, but if this isn’t your thing then approaching weight loss with a friend or work colleagues can have a similar impact.  You can of course embark on a weight loss regime on your own but it’s important to do this in the right way and not get sucked into the hype around new diet fads.

Media confusion 

Ignore what you read in the media as this can often cause confusion.  Advice such as that telling you to cut out carbs, shun counting calories, eat loads of protein or avoid eating at certain times is fine in the context of certain methods of weight loss but these messages are good examples of our current obsession of defining diet and health by individual foods and nutrients.  The negative impact of such messaging is that it has the potential to cause false ideas around healthy eating and labelling foods as somehow being ‘good’ or ‘bad’ can detract away from the basic principles of eating well. Focusing on certain nutrients and positioning them as a key driver for weight gain also causes confusion, blurring the basics of healthy eating and making it seem more complicated.

Carbohydrates 

Carbohydrates are one of the best examples of how we have become overly focused on individual nutrients and foods groups.  The messaging around carbohydrates and health has become very negative and for some are viewed as being at the root of weight gain and disease.  A diet high in carbohydrates can cause weight gain, diabetes and inflammation but it needs to be put into context to be fully understood.  Whilst people attribute a diet high in carbohydrates to poor health, few actually define what this looks like, which has led to people taking the issue out of context.

If your daily diet includes over-sized portions of sugary cereals and muffins for breakfast, huge white baguette filled with something high in sat fat for lunch and an extra-large pizza for dinner, all of which are accompanied by sugary snacks, soft drinks and hot beverages doused with sugar, then this is clearly not a healthy way to eat and goes against the basic principles of healthy eating.  If you eat like this, then there’s also a very good chance that you’re unhealthy in many other ways such as lacking in exercise. However, this cannot be compared to a diet that includes a sensible portion of porridge oats for breakfast, quinoa and chicken salad for lunch and then a tofu stir-fry with brown rice for dinner, whilst also avoiding snacks and sugary drinks.  These two diet examples both include carbohydrates and one is clearly healthier that the other but without putting this nutrient in the right context, people develop false ideas and the confusion around what foods they should be eating continues to grow.

Small changes 

Taking a small changes approach is a good way to start.  Rather than becoming overwhelmed and trying to make dramatic changes to the way you eat, start by looking at your current diet and thinking about how you can adapt this to make it healthier.  The basics of healthy eating still apply to weight loss in that you need to cut down on the number of calories you eat and insure that these calories come from nutritious foods that will help to keep you feeling full and reduce your risk of disease (lean proteins, healthy fats, vegetables and fibre-rich wholegrains).

These are just a few ideas of some of the changes you might think about making:

  • Switch to low fat milk and dairy products
  • Choose lower fat meats
  • Avoid snacking or choose healthy snacks
  • Use a smaller plate to control your portion size
  • Make take-away food a treat and reserve to one night of the week (try making healthy choices)
  • Reduce your alcohol intake and avoid binge drinking
  • Gradually reduce your sugar intake in hot beverages and switch to low sugar food products and diet soda
  • Limit fruit juice and smoothies to one-a-day
  • Increase your intake of vegetables
  • Switch to ‘brown carbs’ such as wholemeal pasta and bread, and wholegrain rice
  • Work out your meal combinations in handfuls i.e. one handful of protein, one handful of ‘brown’ carb and unlimited veggies
  • Check food labels; the reality is that many people don’t cook from scratch so choose foods that are labelled as green or amber on the front-of-pack

The accumulation of many small changes can have a big impact on your food intake and weight loss. Every small change also represents a change in eating behaviour that can have a greater impact in the long-term.

Diets

Diets are another approach and can provide a kick-start that some people need to achieve their weight loss goals.  Diets are appealing because they offer a starting point and end goal as well as providing a set of rules to follow. The fact that you are told what, how much and when to eat also adds to their charm. Embarking on a diet can provide motivation, which is amplified by the availability of apps that can help to monitor and track your progress.

Putting very extreme diets aside, there is no single diet that can be said to be superior over another no matter what their marketing says.  The most successful diet is only going to be the one that you stick with and this is influenced by the way you live your life.  There are a multitude of diets out there, which will all tell you they are the best but just because your best friend or a certain celebrity lost lots of weight doesn’t mean you will.  Do your research and figure out what diet will work best for you.  If you know you can’t live without carbs then don’t try following a ketogenic diet (low carb).  If you struggle with energy levels across the day because of a very busy work schedule, then fasting two days of the week may not be realistic.  If your job involves long working hours and late nights entertaining clients then fasting for 16 hours could mean eating your first meal at 3pm, which is clearly not going to work.  If the diet becomes a chore then your chances of sticking to it are less likely.

Weight maintenance 

Whatever the outcome of your diet, you need to consider how you are going to take things forward once you have managed to lose weight.  It’s not uncommon for the end of a diet to signify an opportunity to revert back to old eating habits but what’s the point in dieting if this is the case. This all goes back to the benefits of developing new eating habits that will help you to maintain a healthy weight. A diet worth its weight in gold is the one that teaches you ways to eat that encourage healthy eating habits.

Many diets talk about other health benefits such as increased energy levels, reduction in certain diseases or glowing skin, but you should keep your eye on the prize and these are all potential benefits of losing weight and not specific to that diet per se.

I have no answer to the question of what the best way is to lose weight as it is dependent on the individual.  Losing weight is not simple and there are many factors that can impact on someone’s ability to do so and keep the weight off.  What I can tell you is that finding a method that fits in with your lifestyle and encourages you to develop new habits around food choice is more likely to result in long-term success and that tackling the wider issues such as the psychologically around food may be hugely beneficial in some cases.

Chocolate can be good for you

Chocolate can be good for you

Chocolate can be good for you

This week is Chocolate Week!!!!

The History of chocolate 

The history of chocolate dates back over 3000 years to the Olmec civilization.  Cocoa powder is made from cocoa beans that are harvested from a tree called Theobroma Cacao, meaning ‘food of the Gods’.  Aztecs are thought to have enjoyed cacao beans by making a ‘drink’ called Chicolati, which was believed to increase wisdom, boost energy and act as an aphrodisiac. This brew was seasoned with vanilla, chilli, honey or fruit and whipped into a froth using little sticks.  I love their choice of flavours, which have now become commonplace amongst chocolate bars and puddings.

Since its discovery by Europeans and the vast time through to modern day, millions of people have helped to drive the popularity of this ultimate sweet treat.  The reputation of chocolate has evolved over time from a luxury food synonymous with wealth, to an easily affordable comfort food whilst the association with romantic gesture (food of love) and mood has remained since first discovered.

Global retail sales of chocolate are staggering with estimates of over £75 billion per year and in the UK alone, we spend over £3 billion annually.

Types of chocolate

Chocolate comes in many forms nowadays and is defined by the percentage of cocoa it contains.  Milk chocolate contains a low percentage of cocoa (23% cocoa solids) and is high in sugar and saturated fat.  Darker varieties have a greater percentage of cocoa (anything from 70-90% cocoa solids) and slightly less sugar and saturated fat (although still high).  Cocoa powder contains hardly any sugar, low amounts of saturated fat and is rich in minerals and other compounds that may benefit health.

Nutritional content of cocoa

Cocoa in its raw form is a good source of minerals including iron (helps to maintain healthy red blood cell production), magnesium (helps to maintain healthy bones, promotes muscle relaxation and converts food into energy), phosphorus (healthy bones and converts food into energy), potassium (helps maintain fluid balance and helps the heart to work properly),  zinc (helps to make new cells and enzymes in the body and wound healing) and copper (helps to produce red and white blood cells and with iron usage in the body).

Nutritional breakdown of unsweetened cocoa powder per 2 heaped tsp

Calories         44

Fat                  1.9g

Sat fat             1.8g

Carb                 1.6g

Sugar              0g

Fibre               2.3g

Protein           2.6g

Also contains….

Iron                 1.57mg (11% RDA)

Magnesium    73mg   (19% RDA)

Phosphorus    92mg (13% RDA)

Potassium       210mg (10.5% RDA)

Zinc                 0.97mg (9.7% RDA)

Copper           0.55mg (55% RDA)

Other compounds found in cocoa

Cocoa is richer in antioxidants that almost any other food on the planet.  These antioxidant compounds are called flavanol polyphenols and have been shown to help reduce the risk of disease. Cocoa also contains a compound called theobromine, which acts as a stimulant similar to caffeine but without the jittery side-effects. You will also find phenethylamine (PEA) in cocoa, which is a compound that stimulates the central nervous system to amplify the action of brain chemicals including the ‘feel’ good hormones serotonin and dopamine.  Phenethylamine is also thought to mimic the brain chemistry of someone in love, which is why it’s often thought of as an aphrodisiac.

What are the potential health benefits of cocoa?

In moderation there’s nothing wrong with eating chocolate within the context of a healthy diet, but too much of anything can have its downsides and our reliance on high sugar snacks has been instrumental in the rise of diet related diseases including obesity.

Whilst overindulging on chocolate snack bars and puddings is clearly not great for your health, research has shown that there may be health benefits associated with cocoa, which is the raw ingredient.

Just to be clear, there are no benefits associated with tucking into a few packets of Minstrels and any positive impact on health is linked to cocoa in its raw form of cocoa powder or raw cacao.  The closest chocolate comes to having any health benefits is the dark variety with a high percentage of cocoa solids (70% and above), but this still needs to be eaten in moderation given its high sugar and sat fat content.

Heart disease

The polyphenols in cocoa are thought to dilate the arteries, which improves elasticity and may reduce the risk of heart attack. The effect of these antioxidants is also thought to be similar to aspirin in that they help to thin the blood and prevent unwanted clots with research showing that the effect after drinking a cup of cocoa lasting more than 6 hours (1).  Findings from a large analysis of seven studies carried out by researchers at Cambridge University found that both men and women with the highest intake of cocao were 37% less likely to suffer with coronary heart disease and 29% less likely to experience a stroke compared to those with the lowest intakes (2).

Cholesterol

Studies have shown that cocoa may have a positive impact on cholesterol, raised levels of which are considered to be a risk factor for heart disease.  Findings from a clinical trial published in the Journal of Nutrition showed that the polyphenols found in cocoa powder contributed to a reduction in LDL (bad) cholesterol, elevation in HDL (good) cholesterol and suppressed the oxidation of LDL cholesterol, which is thought to be particularly damaging to tissues such as those lining the arteries of the heart (3).   The effect on oxidation may be explained by the antioxidant effect of polyphenols as they help to protect the body from free radical damage (4).

Blood pressure

Research around blood pressure stems from islanders of Kuna that don’t appear to develop high blood pressure as they get older, which is in part attributed to the high amounts of cocoa they consume on a daily basis. It was noticed that once they left the island and consumed less cocoa they lost the protective effect on blood pressure.  The link between cocoa and blood pressure is that the flavanols it contains increase the availability of nitric oxide in the blood, which dilates blood vessels and lowers blood pressure.  Researchers from Adelaide University found that drinking cocoa (rich in flavanols) significantly lowered blood pressure when compared to a flavanol-free placebo drink (5).  Similar findings have also been shown in several other studies although the effect is not that strong (6, 7).

Brain health

Studies have shown that drinking cocoa at least 5 days of the week boosts the flow of blood to the parts of the brain that help with cognition and may improve performance and alertness (8).  The antioxidants in cocoa also help to neutralise the low-grade inflammation associated with ‘foggy’ thoughts. Studies of older people that are mentally impaired have found that those who regularly drank cocoa had greater improvements in memory and verbal reasoning than those who did not (9). It’s for this reason that cocoa has been of interest to researchers investigating dementia.

Chocolate as a functional food?

Advances in innovation have seen a rise in chocolate products with added health benefits.  Companies such as Ombar produce a dark chocolate bar fortified with probiotic cultures.

How to add more cocoa into your diet

Whilst many people enjoy eating chocolate and may understand the potential benefit of choosing dark over milk varieties, less people know how to use cocoa powder beyond a drink.

If you’re not familiar with using cocoa powder, then try these ideas below for a little inspiration:

  • Add 1 tbsp to your protein shake.
  • Add 1 tbsp to porridge.
  • Make homemade energy balls by blending cocoa or raw cacao powder, dates and chopped hazelnuts to a food processor.
  • Combine 1 tbsp with hot milk of choice for a warming evening drink rich in magnesium that helps to promote muscle relaxation and has been shown by research to induce sleep. Try adding cinnamon, ground cardamom or chilli for extra flavour.
  • Add cocoa or raw cacao powder to chilli con carne for richness and intense flavour.

The reality of chocolate and health

The truth still remains that chocolate, even dark chocolate, is never going to be considered a healthy food as it contains high amounts of sugar and saturated fat, which if eaten in excess will counteract any potential health benefits of cocoa.  However, you can reap the health benefits of cocoa by incorporating it into your diet in ways that allow you to control the amount of sugar and saturated fat.  It’s also worth pointing out that the true benefit of nutrition lies in the overall diet and not single foods so whilst the health potential of cocoa is interesting, you still need to focus on eating a well balanced and varied diet.

Try this recipe from my book The Detox Kitchen Bible.  These brownies are still a sweet treat but contain much less sugar than usual recipes and harness the benefits of cocoa.

Beetroot Brownies

Makes 9

Ingredients

150g raw beetroot, peeled and cut into small cubes

50g hazelnuts

100g gluten and wheat-free flour

1 tsp baking powder

60g raw cacao powder

120g runny honey

½ tsp salt

3 eggs

75ml rapeseed oil

Method

  1. Preheat your oven to 200°C. Line the bottom and sides of a 20cm square cake tin with greaseproof paper.
  2. Put the beetroot in a microwave-safe bowl with 50ml water, cover with clingfilm and cook on a high heat for 7 minutes until soft. If you don’t have a microwave, wrap the beetroot in foil and bake in the heated oven for about 40 minutes until soft.
  3. Put the hazelnuts in a blender and blitz until they are roughly chopped. Transfer them to a large mixing bowl. Sift in the flour, baking powder and cacao powder.
  4. Now blitz the cooked beetroot in the blender for 1–2 minutes until smooth. Add to the dry ingredients in the bowl but do not mix just yet.
  5. Using the blender for the third time, put the honey, salt and eggs in it and blitz for 3 minutes. Pour into the bowl and mix with the rest of the ingredients using a wooden spoon. Be gentle, as you want to keep air in the mixture whilst combining it thoroughly.
  6. Pour the mixture into the prepared cake tin and bake in the heated oven for about 30 minutes or until a skewer inserted into the centre comes out clean. Allow to cool completely before cutting into squares.

You can find more delicious recipes from Lilly and the gang at the Detox Kitchen website.

If you liked this blog and want to learn more about chocolate then have a read of these:

Raw cacao and avocado mousse recipe 

Raw cacao and cashew nut milk

 

References

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10871557
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21875885
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17513403
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11684527
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19910929
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17609490
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22301923
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16794461
  9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25733639

 

An in-depth look at the current state of mens health in the UK

An in-depth look at the current state of mens health in the UK

An in-depth look at the current state of men’s health in the UK

Regardless of what sex you are it’s been shown time and again that diet and lifestyle choices have a significant impact on your health and reduce the risk of disease.  Men and women share similar risk factors for ill health and weight is a concern for everyone, but some conditions are more sex-specific to men.  Targeting men’s health often requires a different approach to women and given the slight disparity in attitudes between the sexes, it’s important that awareness continues to grow to help break taboo’s and create an environment that men feel comfortable enough in to seek help when needed and make behaviour changes that can significantly improve their health.

Apologies as this is quite a hefty blog, but for my own curiosity I just wanted to put everything about men’s health into one place to provide insight and the latest research findings to give a good overview of the health landscape according to men.

This includes:

  1. What a typical male diet looks like in the UK?
  2. How overweight men are in the UK?
  3. What lifestyle choices men are making in the UK?
  4. The most common causes of premature death amongst men in the UK
  5. Heart disease amongst men in the UK
  6. Mental health amongst men in the UK
  7. Men’s attitudes towards health and how they access health services

1.What a typical male diet looks like in the UK?  

The National Diet and Nutrition Survey in the UK has shown that both men and women share similar dietary characteristics (1). Both groups eat enough protein and meet the guidelines for total fat but consume too much sugar and saturated fat.  Both sexes also fail to eat enough fibre and very few meet the recommended 5-a-day guidance or eat enough oily fish.  Fewer men than women have micronutrient insufficiencies, but low levels of vitamin D are shared between the sexes, especially during the winter months.

Dietary findings for men (1)

  • The average energy intake is 2091 calories.
  • The average intake of protein is 87.4g, which is 1.5 times the RNI of 55g per day. Protein requirements differ depending on health status and exercise, but the average is around 0.75g per kg of body weight.  Most of the protein in the diet comes from meat and meat dishes (37%).  Twenty three percent comes from cereals and cereal products, whilst 13% comes from milk and milk products.
  • The average intake of total fat is 76.6g per day, which equates to 32.6% of energy intake. This falls within the guidance of no more than 35% of energy intake.  Most of the fat in the diet comes from meat and meat products (24%).  A similar amount (21%) comes from cereals and cereal products including biscuits, cakes and puddings.  Milk and milk products account for 12% of total fat intake.
  • The average intake of saturated fat is 27.5g per day, which equates to 11.6% of energy intake.This exceeds the guidance of no more than 10% of energy intake.  The main source of saturated fat in the diet is from meat and meat products (24%). Twenty one percent comes from cereal and cereal products that includes biscuits, cakes and puddings.  The same percentage comes from milk and milk products, the majority of which comes from cheese.  Nine percent comes from fat spreads with 6% attributed to butter.
  • Sat fat (21% cereals and cereal products – 5% biscuits,4% cakes, 1% puddings), 21% (milk and milk products – 9% cheese), 3% (eggs and egg dishes), 9% (fat and fat spreads – 6% butter), 24% (meat and meat products), 3% (fish and fish dishes), 6% (veg and potatoes – 3% chips), 1% (savoury snacks), 2% (nuts and seeds), 5% (sugar and confectionary – 4% chocolate)
  • The average intake of ‘free’ sugars is 64.3g (12.8 tsp) per day. This is more than twice the guidance of no more than 30g (6 tsp) per day.  The main source of ‘free’ sugars in the diet is from sugar and confectionary (25%), most of which is from table sugar and sweet spreads.  Twenty four percent of ‘free’ sugars comes from cereals and cereal products that includes breakfast cereals, biscuits, cakes and puddings.  Non-alcoholic drinks are also a big contributor with 6% coming from fruit juice and 14% from soft drinks.
  • The average intake of fibre is 20.7g per day. This is just a third of the guidance of 30g per day and only 13% of men manage to achieve this.  The main source of fibre in the diet is from cereals and cereal products (38%), which includes pizza, pasta, rice and bread (more men choose white bread over wholemeal). Thirty eight percent of fibre in the diet comes from vegetables and potatoes, with 7% coming from chips. Twelve percent of fibre in the diet comes from meat products, which are breaded or include pastry or potatoes.
  • The average intake of fruit and vegetables is 4.2 portions, which is below the recommended 5-a-day. Only 29% of men manage to eat 5-a-day.

The micronutrients (vitamins and minerals)

Nutrient Average intake % RNI % below LRNI Key food sources
Vitamin A 921mcg 132% 16% 28% vegetables, 15% milk and milk products, 16% meat and meat products, 11% cereals and cereal products
Vitamin B1 (riboflavin) 1.76mg 136% 6% 27% milk and milk products, 20% cereals and cereal products, 17% meat and meat products
Folate 267mcg 134% 3% 27% cereal and cereal products, 26% vegetables, 10% meat and meat products.
Vitamin D (food sources) 2.9mcg 29% 30% meat and meat products, 19% egg and egg dishes, 17% fish and fish dishes, 15% cereals and cereal products
Iron 11.6mg 134% 2% 38% cereals and cereal products, 21% meat and meat products, 15% vegetables
Calcium 897mg 107% 11% 31% cereals and cereal products, 15% meat and meat products, 9% milk and milk products
Magnesium 302mg 101% 14% 31% meat and meat products, 27% cereals and cereal products, 16% vegetables, 12% egg and egg dishes
Potassium 3145mg 90% 11% 24% vegetables, 18% meat and meat products, 15% cereals and cereal products, 10% milk and milk products
Iodine 172mcg 123% 9% 34% milk and milk products, 12% cereals and cereal products, 10% fish and fish products, 10% meat and meat products
Selenium 55mcg 74% 25% 32% meat and meat dishes, 27% cereal and cereal products, 15% fish and fish dishes, 9% egg and egg dishes
Zinc 9.7mg 102% 7% 34% meat and meat dishes, 25% cereals and cereal products, 14% milk and milk products, 11% vegetables

 

2.How overweight are men in the UK?

The majority of the male population in the UK are either overweight or obese (2,3,4,5).  Obesity is both a disease and risk factor for many other diseases.  Being overweight or obese increases the risk of having high cholesterol, high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes, which are all risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD).  Obesity also increases the risk of joint problems, lower back problems, deep vein thrombosis, colon cancer and erectile dysfunction.  Losing and maintaining a healthy weight can have a significant impact on health and reduce the risk of disease.

The prevalence of overweight and obesity vary throughout the UK but in general, rates are higher amongst men.

England (2)

  • Over 60% of men are overweight or obese.
  • Men (65.7%) are more likely to be overweight or obese than women (57.1%).

Wales (3)

  • Twenty three percent of adults are obese and 36% overweight.
  • Sixty five percent of men are obese or overweight compared to 53% women.

Scotland (4)

  • Sixty five percent of adults are overweight and 29% of these are obese.
  • Sixty seven percent of men were overweight or obese compared to 63% of women.

Northern Ireland (5)

  • Sixty percent of adults are overweight or obese (34% overweight and 26% obese).
  • Males (65%) were more likely to be overweight or obese compared to females (57%).

3.What lifestyle choices men are making in the UK?

Diet is important but in terms of health it co-exists with the lifestyle choices we make which include physical activity, smoking and drinking.  A sedentary lifestyle can increase the risk of being overweight, which is a risk factor for disease.  Exercise plays a key part in maintaining a healthy weight and also helps to maintain muscle mass, flexibility and bone strength as well as being good for mental health.

Smoking has been proven to cause cancer and respiratory conditions, whilst excessive drinking is known to be a risk factor for certain cancers and liver disease.

Physical activity in men

The government guidelines suggest that we do at least 150 minutes per week of moderate physical activity in bouts of at least 10 minutes, which equates to 30 minutes on at least 5 days.  Alternatively, it’s suggested that 75 minutes of vigorous activity spread over the week will have the same health benefits.  Moderate physical activity is defined as raising your heart beat whilst still being able to carry on a conversation such as brisk walking or cycling.  Vigorous activity is defined as increasing your heart to beat rapidly, making it much more difficult to carry on a conversation such as running, swimming or football (6).

In the UK, men:

71% met the guidelines

10% some activity1

3% low activity2

16% inactive3

  1. Some activity: 60-149 minutes MPA pw or 30-74 minutes VPA pw or an equivalent combination of these.
  2. Low activity: 30-59 minutes MPA pw or 15-29 minutes VPA pw or an equivalent combination of these
  3. Inactive: Less than 30 minutes MPA pw or less than 15 minutes VPA pw or an equivalent combination of these

Smoking amongst men in the UK

According to findings from the Office of National Statistics (7):

  • In the UK, 17% of men smoke compared to 13.3% of women.
  • The highest proportion of smokers are aged between 25 and 34 years (19.7%).
  • 1 in 4 people in routine and manual occupations smoke compared to just 1 in 10 people in managerial and professional occupations.
  • 5% of people in the UK currently use and e-cigarette (vape) – 2.8 million people
  • 5% of men report vaping compared to 4.6% of women and the highest proportion of vapers are aged between 35 and 49 years.
  • In the UK, 60.8% of people aged 16 years and over who currently smoke said they wanted to quit and 59.5% of those who have ever smoked said they had quit.
  • The main reason for vaping is to help stop smoking (48.8%).
  • Only 0.4% of people who have never smoked reported that they currently vape.

Drinking in the UK

Guidance around drinking is no more than 14 units per week for both men and women (8).

125ml glass of wine = 1.4 units

25ml shot of spirit (37.5% ABV) = 1 unit

½ pint of lager (4%) = 1 units

According to the ONS (9):

  • Men are more likely to drink than women – 9% of men compared to 52.4% of women.
  • Men are also less likely to abstain from drinking as 17% of men and 22% of women said they had not drunk in the last year.
  • 53% of men said their alcohol consumption was no more than 14 units per week compared with 62% of women.
  • 10% of men said their alcohol consumption was more than 14 units per week but less than 21 units per week compared to 7% of women.
  • 12% of men said their average alcohol consumption was more than 21 units but less that 35 units per week compared to 6% of women
  • 4% of men said their average alcohol consumption was more than 35 units but less that 50 units per week compared with 2% of women.
  • 5% of men said their average alcohol consumption was more than 50 units per week compared to 2% of women.

4.The most common causes of premature death amongst men in the UK

  • More men than women die each year – 1156.5 compared with 863.8 deaths per 100K people (10)
  • In the UK one in five men (19%) dies before the age of 65 years (10)

Leading causes of death in 2015 – taken from findings published in 2017 (11)

Leading causes of death by age group for males in England, 2015 taken from findings published in 2017 (11)

 

5.Heart disease amongst men in the UK (12)

  • Heart and circulatory disease cause more than a quarter (26 per cent) of all deaths in the UK; that’s nearly 160,000 deaths each year – an average of 435 people each day or one death every three minutes.
  • There are around 7 million people living with heart and circulatory disease in the UK: 3.5 million men and 3.5 million women.
  • Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common type of cardiovascular disease.
  • Coronary heart disease is the most common cause of heart attack. In the UK there are 188,000 hospital visits each year due to heart attacks: that’s one every three minutes.
  • An estimated 915,000 people alive in the UK today (640,000 men and 275,000 women) have survived a heart attack.
  • Over half a million people in the UK are living with heart failure.
  • There are more than 30,000 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in the UK each year. The overall survival rate in the UK is less than 1 in 10.

6.Mental health amongst men in the UK (13)

  • Over 40% of adults think they have had a diagnosable mental health condition at some point in their life (35.2% of men and 51.2% of women).
  • A fifth of men (19.5%) and a third of women (33.7%) have had diagnoses confirmed by professionals.
  • In 2014, 19.7% of people in the UK aged 16 and older showed symptoms of anxiety or depression – a 1.5% increase from 2013. This percentage was higher among females (22.5%) than males (16.8%).

As far as men are concerned:

  • Just over three out of four suicides (76%) are by men and suicide is the biggest cause of death for men under 35 (14).
  • 12.5% of men in the UK are suffering from one of the common mental health disorders (15).
  • Men are three times more likely than women to become alcohol dependent (8.7% of men are alcohol dependent compared to 3.3% of women (15).
  • Men are more likely to use (and die from) illegal drugs (15).
  • Men are less likely to access psychological therapies than women. Only 36% of referrals to IAPT (Increasing Access to Psychological Therapies) are men (16).
  • Over three quarters of people who kill themselves are men (17)
  • Men report significantly lower life satisfaction than women in the Government’s national well-being survey – with those aged 45 to 59 reporting the lowest levels of life satisfaction (17).
  • 73% of adults who ‘go missing’ are men (18).
  • 87% of rough sleepers are men (19).
  • Men are nearly three times more likely than women to become alcohol dependent (20).
  • Men are three times as likely to report frequent drug use than women (4.2% and 1.4% respectively) and more than two thirds of drug-related deaths occur in men.
  • Men make up 95% of the prison population 72% of male prisoners suffer from two or more mental disorders.
  • Men are nearly 50% more likely than women to be detained and treated compulsorily as psychiatric inpatients (21)
  • Men have measurably lower access to the social support of friends, relatives and community (21)
  • Men commit 86% of violent crime (21)
  • Boys are around three times more likely to receive a permanent or fixed period exclusion than girls (22).
  • Boys are performing less well than girls at all levels of education. In 2013 only 55.6% of boys achieved 5 or more grade A*-C gcses including English and mathematics, compared to 65.7% of girls (23)

The Men’s Health Forum suggests that these statistics indicate that male emotional and psychological distress may sometimes emerge in ways that do not fit comfortably within conventional approaches to diagnosis. They also show that men may be more likely to lack some of the known precursors of good mental health, such as a positive engagement with education or the emotional support of friends and family.

A picture begins to emerge of a potentially sizeable group of men who cope less well than they might:

  • These men may fail to recognise or act on warning signs and may be unable or unwilling to seek help from support services.
  • At the further end of the spectrum they may rely on unwise, unsustainable self-management strategies that are damaging not only to themselves but also to those around them.
  • Such a picture would broadly parallel what is already known about men’s poorer physical health.

7.Men’s attitudes towards health and how they access health services

Health literacy is the ability to obtain, read, understand, and use healthcare information in order to make appropriate health decisions and follow instructions for treatment.  There is evidence that men have lower levels of health literacy than women.

  • One study found that men were than twice as likely as women to have inadequate health literacy (24).
  • An analysis of people with coronary heart disease in south London found that those with low health literacy were more likely to be male, from a non-white ethnic group, live in a more deprived area, have spent fewer years in education, and were less likely to be employed (25).
  • A large study of British adults (970 males and 1246 females) found that women were more likely than men to recall seven out of nine cancer warning signs (26).
  • According to a National Pharmacy Association study, more men than women admit that their understanding of medicines is poor (23.1% against 15.6% women) (27).
  • Men are twice as likely as women to take a new prescription medicine without first reading the patient information leaflet or seeking professional advice (10.9% of men against 5.1% women) (27).
  • Men’s purchase of prescription-only drugs without medical advice, usually via the Internet, is of increasing concern because of the risks of toxicity and missed diagnoses (27).
  • The percentage of men purchasing prescription-only medications without a prescription via the Internet increases to 67% when considering medications for erectile dysfunction specifically (28).

Men and women display different attitudes towards health and illness.  We have a cultural script about masculinity that tells men they need to be tough, brave, strong and self-reliant. It’s exemplified in phrases like “be a man” and “man up”. Men learn from an early age if they don’t act in this tough, masculine way they lose their status and respect as men.

One study carried out in 2016 found men who buy into the traditional cultural script about masculinity and believe they must be brave and self-reliant in order to be respected, had more barriers to seeking care compared to those who did not endorse these beliefs.  Men validating these beliefs about masculinity and enacting them in their own lives were less likely to seek preventative care and are more likely to delay care when they experienced injury or illness (29).

This all has a huge influence on the attitude’s men have towards their health.

  • Health is often socially constructed as a feminine concern and men therefore have to behave as if they are unconcerned about their health if they wish to publicly sustain a ‘real’ male identity (30).
  • Many men appear to legitimise health service usage, only when a perceived threshold of ill health has been exceeded. There is also a tendency amongst men to play down symptoms or to view potentially serious symptoms as simply signs of growing old (30).
  • Fear surrounding the potential loss of masculinity may result in a façade of control and stoicism, instead of honesty about reporting symptoms and accepting interventions, or openness about feelings and insecurities associated with particular illnesses (30).
  • Risk-taking behaviour is associated with masculinity and is, therefore, more common in males than females (30).
  • A King’s Fund study that looked at four behaviours – smoking, drinking, diet and exercise – found that men were more likely to participate in a combination of three or four risky behaviours (31).

Men’s health is unique to their gender and as such the approach to tackling the issues men face needs to take account of their risk of disease and their attitudes towards their wellness.

 

References

  1. https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/ndns-results-from-years-7-and-8-combined
  2. Https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/health-survey-for-england-2016-findings-and-trend-tables
  3. Https://gov.wales/statistics-and-research/national-survey/?Tab=current&lang=en
  4. Https://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Health/scottish-health-survey
  5. Https://www.health-ni.gov.uk/publications/health-survey-northern-ireland-first-results
  6. Https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/uk-physical-activity-guidelines
  7. Https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/healthandlifeexpectancies/bulletins/adultsmokinghabitsingreatbritain/2017
  8. https://www.drinkaware.co.uk/alcohol-facts/alcoholic-drinks-units/
  9. https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/drugusealcoholandsmoking/bulletins/opinionsandlifestylesurveyadultdrinkinghabitsingreatbritain/2017/previous/v1
  10. https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/deaths/bulletins/deathsregistrationsummarytables/2015
  11. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/health-profile-for-england/chapter-2-major-causes-of-death-and-how-they-have-changed
  12. https://www.bhf.org.uk/for-professionals/press-centre/facts-and-figures
  13. https://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/sites/default/files/fundamental-facts-about-mental-health-2016.pdf
  14. https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/deaths/bulletins/suicidesintheunitedkingdom/2016registration
  15. https://digital.nhs.uk/catalogue/PUB17712/alc-eng-2015-rep.pdf
  16. https://digital.nhs.uk/data-and-information/data-collections-and-data-sets/data-sets/improving-access-to-psychological-therapies-data-set/improving-access-to-psychological-therapies-data-set-reports
  17. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20160107060820/http:/www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171778_351100.pdf
  18. https://www.york.ac.uk/inst/spru/pubs/pdf/MissingPersons.pdf
  19. https://www.crisis.org.uk/ending-homelessness/rough-sleeping/
  20. https://digital.nhs.uk/catalogue/PUB14184/alc-eng-2014-rep.pdf
  21. https://digital.nhs.uk/catalogue/PUB12994/drug-misu-eng-2013-rep.pdf
  22. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20160106231734/http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/crime-stats/crime-statistics/focus-on-violent-crime-and-sexual-offences–2012-13/rpt-chapter-1—overview-of-violent-crime-and-sexual-offences.html#tab-Profile-of-Offenders-Involved-in-Violent-Crimes
  23. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130320141729/http://www.education.gov.uk/researchandstatistics/statistics/a00195931/
  24. https://jech.bmj.com/content/61/12/1086
  25. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3549254/
  26. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2790705/
  27. https://www.npa.co.uk
  28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3069491/
  29. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25293967
  30. https://www.bmj.com/content/343/bmj.d7397
  31. https://www.kingsfund.org.uk/sites/default/files/field/field_publication_file/clustering-of-unhealthy-behaviours-over-time-aug-2012.pdf

 

Ten prebiotic foods you need to know about

Ten prebiotic foods you need to know about

Ten prebiotic foods you need to know about

Gut health has become a hot topic in the world of nutrition and as research evolves it’s becoming very clear that the beneficial role of microbes found in the gut goes way beyond digestion.  The collection of microbes in your gut are referred to as your microbiome and advice about how to protect it has become commonplace.

Your gut microbiome is sensitive to your lifestyle and dietary habits; both  can either promote a good diversity of microbes in the gut or tip the balance in the opposite direction, which may have a negative impact on your health.

The foods that can have the biggest positive effect on your microbiome are those containing beneficial bacteria (probiotics) and those containing indigestible fibres referred to as prebiotics.

Your microbiome is unique like a fingerprint

The term ‘microbiome’ refers to the collection of microbes that live in and on the body, of which there are around 100 trillion, the majority of which are found in the gut.  These bugs form a protective barrier defending the body from foreign invaders, which can be harmful to health.

The microbes in your gut include bacteria, which are essential for efficient digestion.  These bacteria also help to digest antioxidant polyphenols, synthesise vitamins such as B12, D, folic acid and thiamine, and produce short chain fatty acids that provide energy to the cells of your colon helping to maintain a strong gut barrier.  Gut bacteria have also been shown to play a role in immunity and new research is starting to explore the effect on the brain with early findings linking the diversity of bacteria in your gut to mental health and obesity (via the effect on hormones that control appetite).

Like a fingerprint, your microbiome is unique, and its composition is dictated by the world around you and within you.

Cultivation is key to a healthy microbiome

It’s yet unclear what constitutes a ‘healthy’ microbiome but one thing for sure is that it takes a bit of cultivation.  If your gut becomes overrun with bad bacteria then this can upset the balance of your microbiome, which may lead to symptoms such as bloating, excessive gas, abnormal bowels, bad breath and fatigue.

A poor diet is characterised by an over-consumption of sugar and bad fats, whilst lacking in nutritious foods such as vegetables and other wholefoods including beans, pulses and wholegrains.  This type of diet has been shown to promote the overgrowth of bad bacteria in the gut  (1, 2, 3).

Medication can also impact on gut bacteria as the overuse of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) and antibiotics have the potential to destroy them, which can leave your gut vulnerable and increase the risk of infection.

What are prebiotics?

No doubt you will have heard about probiotics, which are friendly bacteria found in foods such as live yoghurt and supplements.  Other foods such as kimchi, kefir and miso also contain bacteria, which are beneficial to health.

The role of prebiotics is less well understood but they’re equally, if not more important than probiotics as these indigestible fibres help the bacteria in your gut to thrive.  Probiotic supplements have the potential to be very beneficial, especially if you need to re-balance the diversity of bacteria in your gut but the same is not necessarily true of prebiotics.

There are many food sources of prebiotics, which include inulin, lignin, oligosaccharides, mucilage gums, non-starch polysaccharides (pectin and beta glucans) and resistant starches.  Foods containing these prebiotics can easily be incorporated into your daily diet and many of which you may already be eating on a regular basis. You’re more likely to be eating prebiotic foods if your diet is healthy and contains plenty of plant-based foods.

Ten top prebiotic foods to include in your diet

There are quite a few prebiotic foods, but I have chosen the ones that are more commonly eaten and easily accessed from your local supermarket.

1.Jerusalem artichoke

This vegetable is now available in larger supermarkets and is in season between October and February.  Jerusalem artichokes contain 2g of fibre per 100g and 76% comes from inulin. You can also glean a good source of thiamine (healthy nervous system and releases energy from food) and iron (healthy immune system, red blood cell production and wards of tiredness) from Jerusalem artichokes.

These are not a commonly eaten vegetable as many people are unsure how to use them.  Jerusalem artichokes have a nutty flavour and can be used in the same way as potatoes in that they can be roasted and mashed, and also work well in soups.

2.Garlic

This vegetable is closely related to onions and leeks. Garlic can form the base of many home-cooked dishes alongside onions, which means it’s easy to add to your daily diet.  Around 11% of the fibre found in garlic comes from inulin and 6% from fructooligosaccharides, which add a slight sweetness to its flavour.

3.Onions

Onions are another food that can easily be included into your daily diet as it acts as a base for many home-cooked dishes.  Around 10% of the fibre found in onions comes from inulin and 6% from fructooligosaccharides.  Onions also contain a good source of vitamin C (protects cells, maintains healthy skin and helps with wound healing) and the flavonoid quercetin, which acts as an antioxidant in the body.

4.Leeks

This vegetable is similar to garlic and onions but less commonly used.  Around 16% of the fibre found in leeks is from inulin.  Leeks are also high in flavonoids, which support the body to respond to oxidative stress.  You can also glean a good source of vitamin A (healthy immune system, eyes, skin and mucosal linings such as the nose), vitamin C (protects cells, maintains healthy skin and helps with wound healing) and vitamin K (blood clotting and healthy bones) from leeks.

You can serve leeks as a side dish, incorporate into soups or a topping for pies.

5.Apples

There’s a lot of truth in the saying about an apple a day keeping the doctor away, and this includes the health of your gut.  Around 50% of the fibre found in apples is from pectin.  This prebiotic not only benefits the health of your microbiota but has been shown to help reduce cholesterol.  Apples are also high in polyphenol antioxidants.

As well as snacking on apples you can use them to make fruit puddings, add to savoury dishes and grate as a topping for yoghurt or soaked oats.

6.Asparagus

This vegetable is now available all year round with supermarkets importing it from countries such as Peru.  To savour the best tasting Asparagus and save on food miles, you’re better to wait until the British asparagus season, which occurs between April and May.   Asparagus is not as rich in prebiotics as other vegetables with only around 5% of the fibre coming from inulin. This vegetable also contains a good source of vitamin A (healthy immune system, eyes, skin and mucosal linings such as the nose), vitamin K (blood clotting and healthy bones) and folate (healthy red blood cells and protection against neural tube defects in unborn babies).

Asparagus is delicious served on its own with a big drizzle of olive oil or topped with a poached egg for breakfast.  You can also add asparagus to pasta dishes, risottos and soups.

7.Bananas

These fruits are one of the most commonly eaten in the UK and contain small amounts of inulin.  Unripe (green) bananas are high in resistant starch and feature as an ingredient in many Caribbean dishes. Bananas are also a good source of vitamin B6 (converts food into energy and helps to form haemoglobin in red blood cells).

Bananas can be eaten as a snack, baked and used in smoothies and fruit puddings.  For something different, try adding to curries.

8.Barley

This grain is not as commonly used as others such as rice but is actually hugely versatile once you know how to use it.  Barley contains around 8g of beta glucan per 100g, which is not only good for your gut but has been shown to help reduce cholesterol. Barley also contains the minerals magnesium (converts food into energy, promotes muscle relaxation and healthy bones) and selenium (protects cells and promotes a healthy immune system).

Barley can be used in place of rice to make risotto, added to soups or salads (cooked).

9.Potatoes

Potatoes are a starchy carbohydrate as are other foods such as grains.  Starches are long chains of glucose, which the body uses for energy.  When potatoes are cooked and then cooled, they develop resistant starches, which the body is unable to break down and as such behave as prebiotics.

10.Flaxseeds

These seeds are hugely healthy and a good source of prebiotics with 20-40% of their fibre coming from mucilage gums and 60-80% from cellulose and lignin.  Flaxseeds also contain phenolic antioxidants and are a useful source of protein. You can also glean a good source of minerals from flaxseed including magnesium (converts food into energy, promotes muscle relaxation and healthy bones), iron (healthy immune system, red blood cell production and wards of tiredness), calcium (healthy bones and teeth) and zinc (converts food into energy, involved in making new cells and enzymes and helps with wound healing).  Flaxseed are also rich in omega 3 and although the conversion to more usable forms of this fatty acid in the body is poor, it’s still a useful source, especially for people following a plant-based diet.

You can add seeds to any dish and also smoothies.

If you’re eating a healthy diet, then many of the foods included will naturally take care of your gut and including the foods listed above will be especially useful to promote the health of your microbiome.

 

References

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3493718/
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4005082/
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4083503/
Heart health diet advice, controversy and confusion

Heart health diet advice, controversy and confusion

Heart health – diet advice, controversy and confusion 

The interest and reporting on health has been revolutionary in driving the key messages about the importance of diet and exercise, but have the scales started to tip in the wrong direction?

The basics of good heart health have remained relatively unchanged in that eating a balanced diet and keeping active are key drivers in reducing the risk of disease. The problem is that the definition of what constitutes a ‘balanced diet’ continues to get redefined as we have become obsessed with the ‘micro’ issues and controversies surrounding this topic.  The consequence of this is that key health messages, which are based on science, have become blurred and cause confusion amongst people on what they should be eating.

The basics

We all know what a healthy diet should look like.  To keep healthy, our diet should include plenty of vegetables, lean proteins, oily fish, high-fibre foods such as beans, pulses and lentils and ‘brown’ carbohydrates over ‘white’.  Foods and drinks that are in high in sugar and saturated fat such as puddings, desserts, confectionary, soft drinks, convenience foods, pies and pastries are perfectly fine in moderation but when eaten to excess, especially in place of healthy alternatives are not good for health.

Simple right? If you follow these principles and control the amount of food you eat then there’s no doubt that you’ll be able to retain a healthy body weight, glean enough micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) and protect yourself against diet-related diseases. Yet many adults still fail to achieve this.

What does the current adult UK diet look like?

The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) is a rolling program that assesses the dietary intake of the UK population. This latest version of the survey is a combination of years 7 and 8 (2014/15 – 2015/16) and provides insight into the foods people eat, nutrients gleaned and adherence to public health guidance around nutrition (1).

In summary, the average adult eats too much sugar and saturated fat, not enough fruit and vegetables, too little fibre and hardly any oily fish.  Total fat intake is within the recommended guidelines and we all eat get more than enough protein in our diet.  Vitamin and mineral intakes vary with a significant percentage of some groups not getting enough from their diet.

In more detail…

  • The average fruit and vegetable intake amongst adults is 298g (similar for both men and women), which equates to less than four servings per day.  Only 31% of adults manage to achieve five-a-day, which is higher in women than men (32% versus 29%).
  • The average intake of oily fish is just 8g per day or 64g per week, which is lower than the recommended single weekly serving of 140g.
  • The average intake of ‘free sugars’ amongst adults is over 11 teaspoons per day, which is almost twice the recommended amount.
  • Adults barely manage to get more than 2/3 of their recommended intake of fibre and only 9% meet the guidance of 30g per day (only 4% of women meet this).

 

Percentage of adults with micronutrient intakes below the LRNI

Micronutrient Adults Men Women
Vitamin A 13% 16% 10%
Riboflavin (B2) 10% 6% 14%
Folate 5% 3% 6%
Iron 15% 2% 27%
Calcium 9% 2% 11%
Magnesium 13% 14% 11%
Potassium 17% 11% 23%
Iodine 12% 9% 15%
Selenium 36% 25% 47%
Zinc 8% 7% 8%

 

So, why has healthy eating got so complicated and what is influencing our inability to meet these basic principles?

For the purposes of this blog we’ll set aside the myriad reasons why people make certain foods choices.  This is hugely complex and influenced by emotion, knowledge, peer pressure, access to healthy food, cooking skills, food budget and many other factors.

Let’s focus on the things that have caused confusion around what it means to eat a balanced diet, which can impact on the food choices made by people who are motivated to make changes to their diet to maintain good health and reduce the risk of heart disease.

1.Weight loss

Much of the diet advice we’re exposed to in the media revolves around maintaining a healthy body weight, which is one of the biggest influences over your risk of disease.  Heart disease is the leading cause of premature death and is directly linked to being overweight; the conditions associated with being overweight also act as risk factors for heart disease.  The basic biology of ‘eating less and moving more’ will promote a healthy weight.  The idea that ‘not all calories are created equally’ is very sound but overplayed as within the context of basic healthy eating principles it’s really just common sense.  You know when you’re trying to eat healthily that you should be making up your daily energy (calorie) needs from foods that fit in with the basic principles of healthy eating and not compromising this by figuring out how you can tally a couple of Mars Bars into the equation by skipping meals or eating less nutritious food.

The diet industry and influence of celebrities and social media has seduced people with myriad ways to approach weight loss, which has contributed to the confusion around food choice.  Making long-term small changes to your current diet whilst watching your portion size is probably the best approach but doesn’t appeal to everyone.  Putting very extreme diets aside, there’s no right or wrong way to losing weight and some prefer to embark on a diet plan that lays out exactly what and when to eat.  Diets can be a useful way to ‘kick-start’ your weight loss goals and in some cases can provide much quicker results, but you still need to take on board that adopting long-term habit changes is the only thing that’s going to help you to keep the weight off once the diet has ended.

Attitude towards dieting is important and getting yourself in the right head space is key.  Many people refer to diets in the context of a set period of time and view the end of their diet as being the point that they can start eating ‘normally’ again. However, if your definition of ‘normal’ is reverting back to the way you ate before, then what’s the point if you’re just going to end up putting the weight back on again (classic ‘yo-yo’ dieting).

The best diet is only ever going to be the one you can stick with and forming new healthy eating habits is key to long-term success.  Diets come in many guises and this is where basic healthy eating messages can get blurred.  High protein, low carb, fasting, ketogenic and paleo are just a few examples of how people can develop false ideas around healthy eating.  These diets often label foods as being somehow ‘good’ or ‘bad’, which only adds to the confusion and in some cases can lead to guilt and a feeling of failure if they fail to lose weight or stick to the program.

There’s nothing wrong with dieting, just do your research and work out what approach fits in with your lifestyle.  Once you’ve lost the weight then try reverting back to the basic principles of healthy eating to keep the weight off, which will reduce your risk of heart disease.

2.Food controversy

There have been many books highlighted the impact of certain nutrients on health and questioned current dietary guidelines, which in relation to heart health have revolved around sugar, saturated fat and cholesterol.  I love reading these books as they provide a really interesting insight into the latest science and underline some of the wider controversies that may have shaped the way we are told to eat.  The concepts are very convincing in most cases, but the problem is that without a full understanding of the science of nutrition and research methods, it’s difficult to form an objective opinion and we have all been at a dinner party or sat in the pub with someone reciting the insights this type of literature offers.

The problem I have is that the typical person insinuated by the text is often in the extreme, which is overlooked by the reader. Let’s use carbohydrates as an example. The idea that a high-carbohydrate diet causes weight gain, diabetes and inflammation is rightly true but what defines a high-carbohydrate diet in this instance.  Whenever this is reported in the media or through books, no one actually defines this or shows you what a typical day’s food looks like for this high-carb eating person.  Take a diet of excess calories made up of sugary cereals and muffins for breakfast, washed down with a coffee laden with sugar then a huge white baguette filled with something high in sat fat for lunch and an extra-large pizza for dinner, all of which are accompanied by sugary snacks and soft drinks.  This is clearly not a healthy way to eat and if you eat this way then there’s a very good chance that you’re unhealthy in many other ways such as lacking in exercise. For the reader this is instantly translated as carbs are bad, but you can’t compare this diet with one that contains the right number of calories, forgoes snacking and includes porridge oats for breakfast, quinoa and chicken salad for lunch and then a tofu stir-fry with brown rice for dinner.  Someone following this type of diet may also make healthier lifestyle choices such as exercising regularly. I’m not going to argue the toss over carbohydrates and it’s clear that overdosing on them, especially sugar is no good for your health, but it needs to be put in perspective to be fully understood.

Saturated fat is another good example

It’s taken a while for the nation to adapt to the message that fat isn’t all that bad and research has broadened our understanding of the role this nutrient plays in the diet and its impact on heart disease.  Current advice is that we choose ‘healthy’ fats from foods such as extra virgin olive oil, oily fish, nuts and seeds, which are rich in fatty acids called monounsaturated and polyunsaturated. These fats have been shown to lower the risk of heart disease by ways such as reducing inflammation and levels of ‘bad’ cholesterol.

Saturated fat in the diet has always been sold as being bad for heart health and to be honest if you’re eating a diet that’s high in any type of fat (putting keto diets to one side) then you’re at greater risk of becoming overweight, which is a risk factor for heart disease.  The average adult still eats too much saturated fat but the impact of this on heart health has come under scrutiny.

A landmark scientific review published in the British Medical Journal found no association between saturated fat consumption and all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease, stroke or type 2 diabetes (2).  This study sparked the saturated fat debate and has further studies have contributed to a growing body of evidence that has changed the dialogue on saturated fats.

The impact this study had on the topic of saturated fat in the diet and the relevance of current dietary guidance led to the publication of a report carried out by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN). The Saturated Fats and Health report was published in May (2018) after an extensive review of data from high quality cohort studies and clinical trials (3).  Their findings strongly support the current dietary guidance of limiting saturated fat intake to no more than 10% of the total energy from the diet.  This is translated in dietary guidelines as no more than 30g per day for men and 20g per day for women.

SACN found that there were significant limitations in the available data, which may have helped to be fuel the debate on saturated fat. They also said that lowering saturated fat in the diet was needed to improve events related to heart disease.

But is this insight really of any true benefit to people when they’re choosing what to eat? 

If you’re a healthy weight and enjoy full fat Greek yoghurt, butter, cheese or other natural sources of sat fat in moderation as part of your balanced diet then this is unlikely to have any impact on the health of your heart.  However, the problem with talking about diet in terms of nutrients is that foods don’t just contain a single one.  Convenience foods, pies, pizza, pastries, sweet puddings, ice cream, cakes and chocolate contain a lot of saturated fat and are also high in calories, sugar and salt, which we know is not great for heart health. Redefining saturated fat is not straight forward and runs the risk of people thinking these foods are in some way healthy and confuses the issue of food choice, particularly that related to heart health.

3.Superfoods

Nutrition is often defined by individual foods and nutrients but it’s the overall quality of your diet that counts.   The term ‘superfood’ has been banned by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), who are the body that regulates food labelling. The regulations put upon the food and supplement industry have helped to provide transparency for consumers as well as providing more information about the nutritional and ingredient content of products.

These regulations do not apply to media coverage and as a result we’re still bombarded with new research findings, foods and nutrients portrayed as being superiorly better for our health, preventing myriad of diseases.  The irony is that many of these foods often come full circle and contribute to the ‘kill or cure’ approach to reporting in the media.

There’s nothing wrong with reading about current research, which is often fascinating, but you need to keep perspective. Blueberries, grapes, red wine and pomegranates may contain compounds that could help to prevent heart disease but including them in your diet doesn’t mean you won’t get heart disease, especially if your overall diet is poor and you make unhealthy lifestyle choices such as not exercising or smoking.

The basic principles of healthy eating have been proven to help reduce the risk of heart disease and diets such as the Mediterranean have been shown to be the ‘gold standard’.  Reading about the next best diet or superfood is hugely interesting but there’s no quick-fix solution to eating and living well, yet many people view these as some sort of panacea.  The controversy is interesting but the outcome in terms of what we are advised to eat doesn’t really stray far from basic healthy eating principles.  The real challenge is finding a way to change your habits and making the right diet and lifestyle choices that will see you through to long-term good health and this includes reducing the risk of heart disease.

 

References

  1. https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/ndns-results-from-years-7-and-8-combined
  2. https://www.bmj.com/content/351/bmj.h3978
  3. https://www.gov.uk/government/consultations/saturated-fats-and-health-draft-sacn-report
The blokes guide to going vegan

The blokes guide to going vegan

The blokes guide to going vegan

Veganism is on the rise and research commissioned by the vegan society in 2016 showed that the number of vegans in the UK has increased by 360% over the last 10 years as a record number of people are choosing to avoid food derived from animals. Over 500,000 people aged 15 or over (more than one per cent of the population) have adopted this plant-based way of eating, making this one of the fasted growing lifestyle movements according to the Vegan Society.  Most vegans live in urban areas, with a quarter residing in London. A Mintel survey carried out in 2017 found that 11% of Britons had tried to follow a vegan diet at some point (1), whilst a previous report found that 33% of Brits had tried eating less meat to be healthier (2).

Vegan men

It wasn’t that long ago that Formula One superhero Lewis Hamilton said he was planning to go vegan full-time in an attempt to function at his healthiest and avoid damaging the planet.  “I stopped eating red meat two years ago”, he told the BBC.  Continuing, he said, “I think it’s the right direction and by letting people who are following me know, maybe that will encourage a couple of people to do the same thing”.  Other male vegan sports people include the footballers, Jermain Defoe and Dean Howell, and even heavyweights such as the British boxer David Hayes have made the switch to this plant-based way of eating. Hollywood celebrities have also followed suit with actors and musicians such as Jared Leto, Chris Martin, Woody Harrelson and Casey Affleck all reported to follow a vegan way of eating.

It still stands that more women are vegan but 37% are still made up of men (3) and the increase awareness of health and body weight amongst men may equally be driven these days by celebrity influence as it has always been amongst women. Recent research has suggested that even men who don’t like meat, find it upsets their digestion, or have been asked by a doctor to reduce consumption, still find it difficult to choose the vegetarian or vegan option when in public with other men.

Vegans in the UK

The growing trend towards veganism is reflected in the demand for meat-free food, which has increased by over 900% with this way of eating predicted by some sources to be one of the biggest food trends in 2018 (4,5).  Food industry insight provided by Foodable Labs reported that in 2018, fifty one percent of chefs in the US added vegan items to their menus.  The same report suggests that this rise is in part due to the influence of social media food and health bloggers as it showed a 79% increase in photos tagged as being vegan (6).

High street food outlets have recognised the increase and responded by offering more vegan options and certain branches of Pret are now solely offering vegetarian and vegan food. Dietary food labelling (including dairy and eggs) has also made it easier for vegans to choose their food when looking for something to eat on the High Street, although some restaurant options are still limited.

Benefits of veganism

Whilst some people choose to go vegan for ethical reasons (environmental damage from methane gases and deforestation, water scarcity and land degradation), others see this is a great way to improve their health and rightly so.  Research shows that non-meat eaters have healthier lifestyles compared to a typical omnivore diet. Plus, a well-balanced vegan diet is more likely to contain a greater quantity of fibre-rich wholegrain foods and pulses. It’s also been shown that vegans are more likely to exceed the daily recommended fruit and vegetable intake, which means gleaning a greater quantity of certain key vitamins and phytonutrients that help to protect the body from disease (7).

Studies also show associations between meat-free eating and a lower incidence of obesity (8), heart disease (9), high blood pressure (10), type 2 diabetes (11) and digestive disorders such as constipation (12).  Lifestyle habits do play a key role here and this doesn’t mean that following a vegan diet will definitely prevent you from developing these conditions.

Anecdotally, people who have gone vegan report better energy levels and overall wellness, but this could in part be to do with the fact that vegans have been shown to be healthier in general, more likely to exercise and less likely to smoke (13).

Men going vegan

Going vegan may pose challenges to certain men especially those programmed towards a ‘meat and two veg’ way of eating.  The vegan diet can be quite calorie restrictive, which means careful planning for men trying to maintain their body weight.  Men following a demanding fitness regime will also need to adjust their thinking towards how they source their increased requirement for protein. Certain nutrients are also more important for men’s health such as zinc, which is typically found in meat and seafood but easy to source from plant foods once you know which ones to include in your diet.

There’s absolutely no reason why anyone can’t glean everything they need on a vegan diet. The issue of nutrient sufficiency has nothing to do with the food and is more a case of people understanding what foods they should be including in their diet and how to incorporate them. Following a vegan diet does take a little more thought and planning, especially when you first start out, but once you begin to understand what this diet looks like in terms of food, then it’s no different to any other way of eating and the same basic principles of healthy eating apply.

What to expect and how to start

Firstly, you may find yourself feeling hungrier once you switch to a vegan diet, so you may need to be prepared to include a couple of snacks during the day and think about including certain more nutrient dense foods.  Switching to eating solely plants means you may be eating a larger volume of food but fewer calories so choosing the right foods to supply you with enough energy is key.

It’s essential to include foods such as nut butters, avocados, oils, nuts and seeds to your diet to maintain adequate energy levels. Try and make your meals up of a protein (see below), grain, and healthy fats (nut, seed, oil, tahini, avocado, nut or seed). Explore dressings and sauces to accompany your meals. If you do get hungry then fill the gap with dips (bean or veggie based), nuts, seeds, soya yoghurt with toppings, smoothies (try adding oats for extra protein) or breads (topped with nut butter, avocado or banana).

Secondly, there’s likely to be a greater burden on cooking and preparing meals so work out your go-to meals to make things a little easier.  This might be a tofu or vegan Quorn stir-fry or one pot dishes such as a bean-based chilli that can be batch cooked and frozen for future meals.

Thirdly, you may experience bloating and gas when you make the switch to eating more beans, pulses and other high fibre foods. This will pass as your body adapts to this way of eating.

You may want to ease yourself in gently to veganism by starting with eliminating animal flesh then after a few weeks cutting out eggs and dairy.

Nutrients you may want to focus on as you begin vegan eating

A balanced diet is bedrock to good nutrition but if you’re used to eating animal foods as the main component of your diet then you may want to consider how you source certain nutrients in your diet.

Protein

There’s a current obsession with protein and whilst the richest sources are found in animal foods, there’s no reason you can’t get everything you need from plants. The trick is to include a source of vegan protein with every meal.  The richest sources are tofu, beans, lentils, pulses and vegan Quorn but other sources include quinoa, nuts, nut butters and seeds.  You will also glean a little protein from foods such as breads, pasta and rice.  The idea of pairing proteins is outdated so just mix and match them across the day to get a good intake of all the amino acids that make up this macronutrient.

Zinc

Zinc is an important part of many enzymes and has a role to play in immunity, processing carbohydrates, fats and proteins from foods and wound healing. The recommended daily intake for zinc is set higher for men as it plays a key role in maintaining prostate health, testosterone levels and overall reproductive health.

There’s a suggestion that vegans may fall short of this mineral in their diet but there are plenty of plant foods containing zinc. There’s also the issue of absorption, which is thought to be less from plant sources so just being mindful to include plenty of zinc-rich foods in your diet such as spinach, nuts, seeds, cocoa powder, mushrooms, beans, breads and cereal products will do the trick.

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is mostly found in foods of animal origin so vegans should try to include fortified products such as plant milks and breakfast cereals in the diet. Yeast extract is one of the few vegan-friendly natural sources of vitamin B12. Contrary to popular belief, spirulina and other algae products are not reliable sources of this vitamin

Iron

Low intakes of iron can lead to tiredness, fatigue and low mood as this mineral is required to make red blood cells that carry oxygen around the body. The type of iron found in meat is more easily absorbed by the body than plant-based sources, but you can increase the uptake by partnering them with a source of vitamin C such as serving fruit juice with your breakfast cereals or combining red peppers with pulses, beans and lentils. Avoiding tea with meals can also help maximise the absorption of iron from your food. Good sources include pulses, nuts, seeds, fortified breakfast cereals, tofu, tempeh, dark green leafy vegetables, dried fruit, molasses and dried spices.

Calcium

Calcium is essential for the good health of your bones and is also required for proper muscle and nerve function. Although dairy is often (falsely) thought to be one of the only sources of this mineral, you can glean more than enough from foods such as tofu, almonds, dark green leafy vegetables, sesame seeds, tahini and fortified plant-milks. Try eating two or three servings of calcium-rich foods on a daily basis.

Omega 3

Omega 3 fatty acids cannot be made in the body. The two most important are called eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexeanoic acid (DHA), which are predominantly found in oily fish.  Another type of Omega 3 called alphalinolenic acid (ALA) can be found in foods such as dark green leafy vegetables, quinoa, walnuts and chia seed oil.  This Omega 3 fatty acid is converted to EPA and DHA in the body, but the conversion rate is poor, so you may want to consider supplementing your diet with a vegan Omega 3 supplement (sourced from algae).

Store cupboard essentials for all vegans

  • Nuts
  • Seeds
  • Nut butters
  • Oils (extra virgin olive, rapeseed, sesame, chia)
  • Soy (tofu, miso, tempeh)
  • Fortified plant milks
  • Yeast extract
  • Dried spices
  • Cocoa powder
  • Quinoa
  • Canned beans, pulses and lentils
  • Tahini
  • Avocado
  • Hummus
  • Dried fruit
  • Wholegrains (oats, barley, brown rice, spelt)
  • Wholemeal pasta and breads
  • Vegan Quorn
  • Yeast extract
  • Fortified cereals

There’s no reason why anyone can’t get everything they need from a vegan diet.  Certain nutrients such as zinc are particularly important for men and they may also need to consider their overall energy and protein intake if they are trying to gain or maintain body weight alongside a heavy training regime.  They key is planning and understanding how to create quick and easy vegan meals to reduce the burden of cooking.  Supplements such as a multivitamin and mineral or omega 3 may be worth investing in as you begin the transition to vegan eating to insure you are getting everything your body needs.

 

  1. https://store.mintel.com/uk-meat-free-foods-market-report
  2. https://store.mintel.com/healthy-lifestyles-uk-october-2016
  3. https://www.ipsos.com/sites/default/files/migrations/en-uk/files/Assets/Docs/Polls/vegan-society-poll-2016-topline.pdf
  4. https://www.just-eat.ie/blog/plant-based-diet-2018/
  5. https://foodrevolution.org/blog/vegan-statistics-global/
  6. https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/food-and-drink/vegan-dishes-chefs-restaurant-menus-added-2018-veganism-trend-us-a8511526.html
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26707634
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26138004
  9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24636393
  10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5466938/
  11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21983060
  12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10466166
  13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23583444

 

Can the food you eat really ‘boost’ your immune system?

Can the food you eat really ‘boost’ your immune system?

Can you really ‘boost’ your immune system?

As much as I love basking in the sun, I actually love the Winter.  Cosy nights in, wrapping up in Winter woollies and the celebrations of Halloween, bonfire night, Christmas and New Year are all something to enjoy.  What I don’t relish is the prospect of Winter bugs and no matter how healthy you are, they always manage to creep their way in.

As the colder months approach, it becomes more important to eat and live well to support a healthy immune system, which helps to protect us against infections.  Even the best of us are up against it during the Winter and the challenges these months present can hamper good diet and lifestyle practices.  Comfort eating, and the influence of dark mornings and early evenings offer the perfect excuse to lapse on our healthy diet and exercise regimes.

The immunity ‘boost’ conundrum 

As Winter approaches, so comes the advice on how we can ‘boost’ our immune system to ward off infectious bugs.  The idea that you can ‘boost’ your immune system is a little misleading.  This concept conjures up a false expectation of ‘supercharging’ your immune system and in some way making it invincible to anything that attempts to challenge it. The reality is that immunity involves a system and not a single entity. There are many cells of the immune system that have to respond to many different types of microbes. Pinpointing the specific cells and defining to what degree they should be increased is hugely complex and a question that’s yet unanswered by science.

Given the intricacies of the immune response, the science behind the impact of diet and lifestyle on immunity is not definitive, but research is continuing to evolve and it’s clear that maintaining a healthy lifestyle is a key part of keeping your immune system strong and healthy.

Why do we need our immune system?

You couldn’t survive without an efficient immune system, which is made up of special cells, proteins, tissues and organs that defend the body against infectious organisms and other foreign invaders through a series of processes referred to as the immune response.

Foreign invaders in the body are referred to as antigens. These are toxins or other foreign substances that induce an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies. One example of an antigen is the common cold virus. What makes the immune system truly remarkable is that once it has encountered an antigen, antibodies are hard coded to fight this invader should it try to attack the body again.

Can the quality of your diet help to maintain a healthy immune system?

The simple answer is yes. Exactly how diet is linked to immunity is not fully understood but is an area of research that continues to evolve.  Scientists acknowledge that malnourished people are more vulnerable to infectious diseases, which helps to illustrate the importance of diet on immunity.

Maintaining a healthy balanced diet is key and there are many micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) required to maintain the normal functioning of the immune system.  If your diet is compromised in any way through dieting or illness for example, then you may not be eating enough food or the right quality of food that allows you to glean the nutrients required to support your immune system.

Findings from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) have shown that amongst certain groups of the population, intakes of certain vitamins and minerals that support immunity are lacking in the diet (1).  Vitamin D plays a key role in immunity and during the Winter months a significant percentage of people have been shown to have low levels of this nutrient, given the lack of sunshine, which is the main supplier.  Minerals such as selenium, iron and zinc also play an important role in immunity and have been shown to be lacking the diet of some people as have intakes of vitamin A.  This doesn’t necessarily mean your immune system will be compromised but that attention should be paid to eating the right foods to support healthy immunity.

Foods that can support your immune system

Diet is defined by food and not nutrients.  Eating a balanced diet consisting of whole foods such as vegetables, wholegrains, lean proteins and healthy fats, will support your immune system. However, for the purposes of this blog I’m going to lay out some of the foods that contain specific nutrients that support good immunity.

Vitamin A

Orange and green fruits and vegetables contain a pigment called beta-carotene, which is converted to vitamin A in the body. Vitamin A plays an important role in maintaining a healthy immune system (2).  This nutrient helps to maintain the integrity of the mucosal cells of the gastrointestinal tract, eye and respiratory system that function as a first line of defence to infection, forming a barrier between from the environment outside the body.  Vitamin A is also important for the normal function of immune cells and the production of antibodies that respond to infections.

Iron, selenium and zinc

All of these minerals are required for the production of antibodies, which are cells of the immune system that fight infection (3, 4, 5). Findings from the NDNS survey have shown that 27% of adult women and 54% of teenage girls do not get enough iron from their diet and partnered with menstrual blood loss, this puts them at particular risk of deficiency.  Selenium intakes are also low with 38% of adults being shown to have inadequate intakes. Zinc is also lacking the diet, with 8% of adults and 17% of teenagers shown to have inadequate intakes of this mineral (1).

You can maintain good intakes of iron by eating foods such as meat, poultry, oily fish and eggs.  Plant foods such as beans, pulses, dark green vegetables and dried spices are also a good source and you can increase the uptake of iron from these foods by partnering with foods rich in vitamin C.   Selenium is found in Brazil nuts, oily fish and wholegrain foods such as brown pasta, rice and bread. Levels of selenium do vary depending on where the food has been grown and the quality of the soil. Zinc is found in meat, shellfish, eggs, beans, pulses, wholegrains, nuts, seeds and cheese.

Vitamin C

This vitamin is the one people most associate with immunity and the common cold, which is backed up by some research suggesting its effectiveness at reducing the risk and length of infection (6).  Research has shown how several cells of the immune system accumulate vitamin C and requires this vitamin to perform their task, especially T cells and phagocytes.

Most people get more than enough vitamin C in their diet, but appetite can lesson if you do get ill, which may impact on your intake. You can keep your levels topped up by eating foods such as red peppers, citrus fruits, berries, broccoli and potatoes. Vitamin C is water soluble and easily destroyed so try not to overcook vegetables and avoid soaking before cooking.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D has been shown to play an important role in the immune system by increasing the antimicrobial effect of white blood cells that fight infection (7). Low levels of vitamin D can suppress the immune system, putting you at a greater risk of viral infections. Research involving more than 19,000 people found that those with the lowest levels of vitamin D were 36% more likely to develop a common cold than those with higher levels (8).

Findings from the NDNS have shown that 30-40% of all age groups are classed as being deficient in vitamin D due to the lack of sunshine (1). Public Health England recommends everyone takes a supplement providing 10mcg of vitamin D during the Autumn and Winter.

Gut bacteria also play a role

Over 70% of immune cells are located in the gut so it makes that a relationship exists between the two. We’re beginning to understand that it’s quality and not quantity that’s key to gut health and the diversity of microbes in your gut is referred to as your microbiome.

Probiotics are bacteria that have been shown to have a positive health benefit.  Well researched strains include those from the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium family.  Live yoghurt is the most well-known probiotic food and contains strains such as Lactobacillus Acidophilus and Lactobacillus Casei. Fermented foods such as kimchi, kefir and miso also contain strains of bacteria that can support good gut health.

Probiotic supplements offer a way of delivering large doses of specific bacteria to the gut and may be beneficial in the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) such as the common cold (9). The effect of probiotics on the immune system has been widely researched and certain strains have been shown to promote the production of antibodies. The same strains have also been shown to stimulate the activity of immune cells such as natural killer cells and T-lymphocytes, which help regulate immune responses.   A Cochrane Review showed that probiotics were better than a placebo in reducing the incidence and duration of a URTI (10).

Choose a supplement that contains both Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains in a dose of at least 10 billion bacteria per serving.

Mushrooms are interesting too

The overall quality of your diet is more beneficial than focusing on any single food or nutrient, but mushrooms do appear to be interesting when it comes to immunity.  Not only are they one of the few foods to contain a natural source of vitamin D, but they also contain beta-glucan polysaccharides that have been shown by some studies to modulate the immune system (11).  Chinese medicine has long considered mushrooms to be medicinal and especially varieties such as shiitake.

Immunity is a hugely complex system that involves many different cells that work together to fight foreign invaders in the body.  Your diet is known to have a role to play although exactly how is yet fully understood.  Eating a balanced diet is no doubt helpful and there are certain nutrients that play a key role in maintaining the proper function of your immune system. Diet shouldn’t be defined by nutrients as food is what matters but understanding the nutrients that support your immune system help to support the importance of a balanced diet made up of a wide variety of foods.

 

References 

  1. https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/ndns-results-from-years-7-and-8-combined
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11375434
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3173740/
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3723386/
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3724376/
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23440782
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3166406/
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19237723
  9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3560336/
  10. https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD006895.pub3/abstract
  11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4684115/

 

How to tackle indigestion and heartburn

How to tackle indigestion and heartburn

Struggling with indigestion and heartburn?

Indigestion is a common problem that’s often viewed as a niggle and something to put up with rather than complain about or put the effort in to treat. We have all experienced indigestion at some point and there are many reasons why it occurs but if you feel this type of discomfort regularly after eating then it can become a real hindrance on day-to-day life and your overall feeling of wellness.  Even though numerous reasons for indigestion exist, there are many simple changes you can make to your diet and lifestyle to avoid it.

What is indigestion and heartburn?

Although they share the same type of triggers, they’re not the same as indigestion is the condition of which heartburn is a symptom. Indigestion is characterised by a feeling of discomfort in the upper abdomen, which occurs after you’ve eaten, causing symptoms such as bloating, excess wind, belching and nausea.

Heartburn is characterised by a burning sensation in your chest and throat as excess stomach acid makes its way up the oesophagus, which is also referred to as ‘reflux’.  If heartburn occurs regularly throughout the week then you may be diagnosed with a condition called gastroesophageal reflux disease, also known as GERD.

Who is more at risk of indigestion and heartburn?

Anyone can experience indigestion and most of us have encountered it during the festive season as we overindulge in rich food and a few too many glasses of vino.  Common diet and lifestyle factors that encourage indigestion include:

  • Overeating
  • Eating too quickly
  • Medication – aspirin, antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
  • Stress
  • Eating ‘on-the-go’
  • Smoking
  • Excess alcohol
  • Excess coffee
  • Health conditions – cholecystitis (inflammation in the gall bladder), gastritis (inflammation in the stomach), stomach ulcers
  • Spicy foods

Heartburn shares a similar set of triggers but is particularly common in people carrying too much weight or pregnant women, where the pressure put upon the abdomen forces fluids back up the oesophagus.

Bloating is a symptom of indigestion, but it’s important not to confuse heartburn with bloating.  Common treatments for bloating include herbs and spices such as mint, fennel seed and caraway seed.  These are often used in teas to help with bloating after eating as they relax the valve that connects the stomach and oesophagus.  This effect helps to release excess gas but if the issue is heartburn then it will make matters worse as fluids find their way up the oesophagus more easily.

Losing weight will help with heartburn and by following a healthy diet you can help to ease indigestion.  Addressing other diet and lifestyle factors will help to combat indigestion, which in turn will also help to reduce the risk of heartburn.

Start by changing the way you eat

Eating habits can be just as important as the food and drink you include in your diet when it comes to tackling indigestion.   Start by making changes to the way you eat.

  • Serve smaller portions of food in a single sitting and eat little and often if this helps.
  • Avoid eating large meals immediately before you go to bed as lying down will only make digestion more difficult as well as encouraging heartburn.
  • Don’t rush your food as this can encourage more air to enter the stomach and encourage bloating.
  • Chew your food slowly to allow the enzymes that aid digestion to be stimulated.
  • Avoid eating ‘on-the-hoof’.
  • Make the time to sit down with your meal and focus on the job in hand. Distractions and stress can cause indigestion; eat at the table rather than in front of your computer whilst you’re frantically trying to meet a deadline.
  • Try not to skip meals or go for long periods of time without eating as this can encourage bloating, especially if you suddenly eat a large meal.

Now look at what you’re eating and drinking

If changing the way you eat has made little difference, then take a look at the food and drink in your diet.  You can keep a diary for a few days to track your diet and jotting down how you felt after eating will help you identify culprit food and drinks.  I get that this takes quite a bit of motivation and to be honest, in the context of your overall diet and eating habits, it may be that a certain food affects your digestion one day but not the next.

What you may identify is the effect of a potential food intolerance. Lactose (found in dairy foods) and gluten (found in grains such as wheat) are common food intolerances that can cause bloating and other symptoms of indigestion.  A very stressful lifestyle can also encourage the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which causes digestive upset.  If you suspect either of these things to be causing the issue, then you can seek the advice of a dietitian.

Diet strategies

There are plenty of diet strategies that you can follow, which have been shown to help with indigestion and heartburn.

  • Try to follow a low-fat diet as high-fat (rich) foods such as full fat dairy, fatty cuts of meat or rich puddings and sauces can take longer to digest and leave the stomach, causing more stomach acid to be produced and increasing the risk of heartburn.
  • Make you meals from a good balance of starchy foods, vegetables and lean protein (protein helps to stimulate the gall bladder to produce more bile that aids digestion).
  • Include oily fish in your diet each week as they contain omega 3 fatty acids that may help to tackle inflammation in the gut wall, which contributes to indigestion.
  • Try to avoid raw vegetables initially to see if this helps with indigestion as they can be difficult to digest.
  • Beans, pulses and lentils are very high in fibre and can cause bloating, especially if you’re not used to eating. Introduce these foods into your diet slowly and make sure you drink plenty of water to allow the fibre to swell and do its job.
  • You may want to try and cut back on ‘windy’ vegetables such as cauliflower, broccoli, kale and Brussels sprouts to help with bloating associated with indigestion.
  • Other foods that have been shown to trigger heartburn specifically include citrus fruits, spicy foods and caffeinated drinks, which can all increase the production of stomach acid.

Don’t underestimate the effects of stress

Stress has become a common side-effect of our modern way of living and the ripple effect on health has been shown to reach many areas of health.  Stress not only impacts on mental health but encourages inflammation in the body, which is now understood to be a key risk factor for many diseases.  Stress is also a key factor in the development of irritable bowel syndrome (1).

It may seem obvious that trying to eat when you’re highly stressed is likely to cause digestive complaints and studies have shown that people with GERD report stress as something that exacerbates the condition (2,3). However, whether the effect of stress is due to excess stomach acid is up for debate as many scientists are of the opinion that GERD makes people more sensitive to smaller amounts of acid in the oesophagus (4,5).

Stress can also lead to erratic eating patterns that may cause indigestion.  Diet and lifestyle choices can also be affected by stress and choosing unhealthy foods, gaining weight, smoking and drinking excessively can all lead to indigestion. Sleep is also affected by stress and can lead to low mood and a lack of motivation to follow a healthy diet.

Try to address your stress by practicing breathing or relaxation techniques such as meditation.  There are many apps available that can help you to do this.

Can you still drink alcohol?

Alcohol is known to contribute to indigestion, especially heartburn, but it does affect people differently and you may not necessarily need to give up your favourite tipple completely.  Start by cutting alcohol out completely to see how you feel then introduce it back in slowly as you may find your heartburn is not affected by the odd glass of vino.  Avoid mixing your booze with fizzy drinks as this can encourage bloating and don’t drink too close to bedtime as lying flat can encourage reflux.

There are so many different reasons why you may suffer with indigestion and heartburn.  As a ‘one-off’, indigestion may be anticipated as a result of over-indulgence, but if it persists then there are plenty of ways you can tackle the issue by making simple changes to your diet and lifestyle.

 

References

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4202343/
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19961344
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25832928
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8420248
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18206149

 

More fuss over fat but is focusing on individual foods and nutrients the real issue?

More fuss over fat but is focusing on individual foods and nutrients the real issue?

More fuss over fat!

The world of nutrition is fickle taking little for a food to go from friend to foe and  recent headlines have done just that as coconut oil puts fat back in the firing line.  During a recent presentation given by Dr Karin Michels of Harvard University she described coconut oil as “pure poison” continuing to say that it was “one of the worst foods you can eat” (1).  These comments were made in reference to the fact that the type of fat found in coconut oil, mostly saturated fat, raises levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol, which is a risk factor for heart disease.

Dr. Michels received a fair amount of media attention from her comments but set in the right context of her presentation these were part of a wider opinion of the health food industry, questioning the marketing and attitudes towards so called ‘superfoods’.  During her presentation, Dr. Michels deemed them “unnecessary” and pointed out that we can get the same nutritional benefits from everyday foods such as carrots.

I agree.  We can all get sucked in by the hype and this recent story in the press does give rise to important issues surrounding the marketing of foods and how they’re perceived by consumers.  However, the fact that coconut oil became the focus of the headline illustrates how our current approach to health and nutrition has become more focused on individual foods and nutrients rather than overall diet quality.

What is a balanced diet?

A balanced diet includes plenty of vegetables alongside lean proteins, high-fibre starchy foods (brown rice, oats, wholemeal bread and pasta, wholegrains) and healthy fats (olive oil, oily fish, nuts, seeds). Within the context of this diet there’s plenty of room for the odd sweet treat and if you want to add in a few ‘on-trend’ foods then that’s cool too but you should focus on getting the basics right first

Is fat that bad?

It was over 50 years ago that fat became a key focus of public health, mostly in relation to its impact on heart health.  Heart health is the leading cause of premature death and in the decades that followed, nutrition advice was defined by the message that we should all be following a low-fat diet.  In response to this we all turned to choosing margarine, sunflower oil and ‘low fat’ foods to keep our health in check.  Fast forward to the present day and sugar has become a greater health concern. Findings from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2) have revealed that the average intake of fat amongst adults is within the recommended guidelines but that our intake of sugar is twice the recommended amount. It also became quickly apparent that many of the popular ‘low-fat’ foods people were choosing to eat were in fact high in sugar.

It’s taken a while for the nation to adapt to the message that fat isn’t all that bad and research has broadened our understanding of the role this nutrient plays in the diet and its impact on disease.  Studies have shown that certain fats such as monounsaturated (MUFA’s) and polyunsaturated (PUFA’s) are better for our health, especially with respect to heart disease (3)(4).  Foods rich in these fats include extra virgin olive oil, oily fish, nuts and seeds, which are key components of the Mediterranean diet, considered by many to be the ‘gold standard’ (5).

Fat is just one component of the diet and any type should be eaten in moderation as they’re the most calorific component of the diet. Putting ketogenic diets (high fat, low carb) to one side, a diet high in fat has the potential to cause overweight, which in itself a risk factor for many diet related diseases.

Saturated fat

The average adult still eats too much saturated fat but the impact of this on heart health has come under scrutiny.  A landmark scientific review published in the British Medical Journal found no association between saturated fat consumption and all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease, stroke or type 2 diabetes (6).  This study sparked the saturated fat debate and further studies have contributed to a growing body of evidence that has changed the dialogue on saturated fats.

The impact this study had on the topic of saturated fat in the diet and the relevance of current dietary guidance led to the publication of a report carried out by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN). The Saturated Fats and Health report was published in May (2018) after an extensive review of data from high quality cohort studies and clinical trials (7). Their findings strongly support the current dietary guidance of limiting saturated fat intake to no more than 10% of the total energy from the diet.  This is translated in dietary guidelines as no more than 30g per day for men and 20g per day for women.

SACN found that there were significant limitations in the available data, which may have helped to be fuel the debate on saturated fat. They also said that lowering saturated fat in the diet was needed to improve serum lipid profiles and events related to cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease.

Fat intake in the UK

The latest NDNS survey (2) showed that the average daily total fat intake in adults is 33.2% of total energy, which is below the guidance of 35%.  It was also shown that the average daily intake of saturated fat in adults is 11.9% of total energy, which is above the 10% guidance. The Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition also agreed that we should be choosing foods rich in ‘healthier fats’ such as nuts, seeds, olive oil and avocados over those containing high amounts of saturated fat.  Given total fat intake in the UK is within the guidance it was suggested that the focus should still be on reducing saturated fat to achieve a better balance of fats in the diet.

So, what does all of this actually look like in practice?

I get that this issue needed to be resolved in order to support the current recommendations about saturated fat intake, but in practice it’s not that complicated.  I’m a fan of whole foods and I choose to eat full fat Greek yoghurt over low fat, spread butter on my toast, and enjoy the odd bit of cheese, but they make up a small part of my diet.  According to the NDNS, they make up 27% of the nation’s diet (2).

I choose not to eat other foods that are high in saturated fat on a regular basis.  These foods include pies, pizza, pastries, sweet puddings, ice cream, cakes and chocolate, which are also high in calories, salt and refined carbohydrates such as sugar.  It doesn’t take a rocket scientist to get that none of these foods are ever going to be considered as healthy, but eating them in moderation, within the context of a balanced diet is fine.  The problem with redefining saturated fat is that it can easily cause confusion and if taken out of context may only contribute to unhealthy food choices that increase the risk of weight gain and disease.

What about coconut oil?

Coconut oil is sourced from the meat of mature coconuts and is mostly made up of saturated fatty acids.  Whilst saturated fat is considered to be something we should be cutting down on in the diet, those found in coconut oil are different in structure and called medium chain fatty acids (MCFA’s) as opposed to the long chain variety found in food like cheese and fatty cuts of meat. It’s these MUFA’s and in particular, lauric acid, which are thought to be at the root of the many health benefits associated with coconut oil.

Medium Chain Fatty Acids are more easily digested and directed to the liver (bypassing the gut), where they’re converted into energy rather than being stored as fat. Research has suggested that coconut oil can increase levels of HDL (bad) cholesterol as well as possessing anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal properties. Coconut oil is also commonly touted as supporting weight loss, but the evidence isn’t strong enough to back this claim.

The popularity of coconut oil

It’s easy to get seduced by food and health trends given the attention and interest they generate in the media and especially when accompanied by a flurry of health benefits.  The research questioning saturated fat and heart health has helped to position coconut oil as a healthy food.  Coconut oil has also made its way into the mainstream like other foods trends that came before it such as quinoa and green juices.  The popularity of coconut oil has been helped by its promotion amongst healthy eating chefs, social media and the ‘clean eating’ revolution.  Evidence of its popularity is reflected in sales, which have grown four-fold since 2014 with predicted sales this year thought to hit £24 million.

Whilst popular, the science surrounding coconut oil doesn’t tally with its associated health benefits, and the effect of coconut oil on heart health is still not clear, which has contributed its controversy.

What oil should you be using on a daily basis?

Whilst polyunsaturated fats such as sunflower oil have always been considered to be the best choice of cooking oil, some have questioned the impact they have on our omega 6 intake, which in excess can impact on inflammation.  Extra virgin olive oil is popular and even more so since becoming more widely available and cheaper to buy.  Speciality oils such as those from nuts and seeds have also become more widely available but not as popular given the fact that many people are unsure how to use them.

In my opinion, extra virgin olive oil is still the best choice.  Time and again, large studies have highlighted the close relationship between the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular disease (5).  Extra virgin olive oil, which is a major component of this diet, has been shown to be very relevant in lowering the incidence of heart disease and stroke. The majority of fatty acids found in extra virgin olive oil are monounsaturated that have been proven to increase HDL (good) cholesterol and lower LDL (bad) cholesterol.  Compounds found in extra virgin olive oil such as a polyphenol called oleocanthal have been shown to help reduce inflammation (8), which is thought to be a risk factor for many diseases including heart disease.

Given the evidence to support the health benefits of extra virgin olive oil, it only goes to prove the power of marketing that someone would choose any other oil over this one, especially one that is wrapped in controversy.

There are many other oils on the market that offer unique flavours that can be incorporated into cooking such as nut and seed varieties (these work well in dressings and drizzling). Despite the fuss over coconut oil, likening it to poison is a bit harsh and only adds to the ‘kill or cure’ culture surrounding foods in relation to diet and health. Used in moderation, coconut oil can add a unique flavour to dishes that works particularly well with Asian and Indian cuisines.

And what about Superfoods?

Most of us have ‘wised up’ to the notion of ‘superfoods’ and understand that this is nothing more than a marketing ploy, but the word has still become commonplace and seen as a descriptor for foods that may be particularly nutritious.  The idea that one food is more nutritious than another or focusing on a single food or nutrient to protect your health is never a good idea as it’s the overall diet that counts.  Marketing foods as such is of course misleading and food labelling and health claims legislation has helped to create some degree of transparency.

It’s the overall quality of your diet that counts

The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2) has shown that many people are not eating the right foods to meet their dietary needs.  Only a third of people in the UK manage to eat 5-a-day and very few eat oily fish on a weekly basis.  The average adult is also eating twice the recommended amount of added sugar, too much saturated fat and less than 10% are meeting the guidance for fibre.

Nutrition research tends to look at the effects of individual components of the diet, but it’s worth keeping in mind that people eat food and not nutrients.  Don’t assume that a single food or nutrient is going to be a panacea or antidote to an unhealthy lifestyle, ‘superfood’ or not.  These false expectations are completely redundant as it’s the overall quality of your diet that is going to have the most significant impact on your health.

And the debate on fat?

As far as the debate on fat is concerned, the consensus still seems to be that we should be eating less saturated fat in our diet, whilst focusing on foods that contain PUFA’s and MUFA’s.  Regardless of this, the debate on fat is just one of many in the world of nutrition that all raise important issues.  The downside is that they have the potential to cause further confusion amongst people as to what foods they should be eating, particularly as the science is often not clearly understood or the outcomes are taken out of context or misrepresented in the media.  The wider issue is still how to get people to make better choices to improve the quality of their overall diet and part of this is making food the focus and not nutrients.

 

References 

  1. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/health-fitness/nutrition/diet/now-coconut-oil-poison-fat-should-using-cooking/
  2. https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/ndns-results-from-years-7-and-8-combined
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4198773/
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20351774
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20810976
  6. https://www.bmj.com/content/351/bmj.h3978
  7. https://www.gov.uk/government/consultations/saturated-fats-and-health-draft-sacn-report
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21443487

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cooking With Soul – Soul Sisters Fitness & Rob Hobson Nutrition

Cooking With Soul – Soul Sisters Fitness & Rob Hobson Nutrition

Cooking With Soul

I’m very excited to be collaborating with my buddies on this new venture.  Sisters, Alex and Maddie are the talented, fun and inspirational duo behind Soul Sisters Fitness.  The girls are top of their game in the world of wellness and run the Adidas female fitness studio on Brick Lane, London, where all the classes are FREE.

Diet and fitness has evolved into something that some people may view as being unachievable, but the bottom line is that it shouldn’t be a chore and with the right attitude, anything’s possible.  Diet and fitness should be fun and there’s something for everyone.  Without wanting to sound ‘preachy’, we all have our own journey and the key to developing and sticking with good diet and fitness habits is found within the right inspiration and a little bit of expert knowledge.  It’s naive to think it’s that simple and we get that (we certainly don’t get it right ourselves all the time!), but let us show you how to approach diet and fitness uninhibited, with a focus on confidence, fun and positive energy.

Time to inject more excitement into the wellness industry 

Alex, Maddie and I want to inject more excitement into the wellness industry with cheesy grins, high energy and a general ethos of ‘keeping it real’ rather than worrying about balancing your macros, overdosing on protein or other ways of trying to micro-manage your diet and fitness.  If you complicate your diet and fitness too much then you’re more likely to lose the fun element.  That’s when you start to set unrealistic goals. That’s when you start to put too much pressure on yourself.  That’s when it can all become a bit of a chore and when you risk losing the long-term routine and consistency of diet and fitness, which is essential for long-term health. That’s the most important thing right?  Your health is your wealth.

Common barriers to diet and fitness

Do you need to splash your cash on so called ‘Superfoods’ to be healthy?
Do you need to be an expert chef to cook healthy food?
Do you need to dedicate hours in the kitchen to prepare healthy food?
Do you need fancy gym gear or an expensive gym membership to exercise?

The answer to all these questions is ‘HELL NO’ (although the Soul Sisters do love a snazzy outfit!)

 

Cooking With Soul is a weekly YouTube feature and we’ll show you how to cook delicious, nutritious and sometimes a little bit fancy, healthy food.  We want to make the most of foods that can save a few quid and create dishes that anyone can prepare in a flash.

Cooking With Soul will explore all areas of health and fitness.  As a qualified and registered nutritionist, and qualified PT’s, we’ll use our 30 years of combined experience as experts in the industry to share insight and answer the questions we commonly get asked in our line of work, and of course, bring it back to the kitchen!

Just a few examples include:

What’s veganism and can I get enough protein on this diet?
How can I get more iron in my diet?
How much protein do I actually need and should I be drinking shakes?
What’s the best way to lose weight?
What are the best foods for women’s health?
What’s the best way to ‘bulk up’?
What fats should I be cooking with?
What’s the deal with snacking?
Can my diet help with sleep?
What’s inflammation?
Do I need to go dairy-free?
How can I reduce my sugar intake?
Why am I always bloated?
Are carbs bad?

Got a question that you want answered? Get in touch and we’ll make a video for you!

We’re also planning a new concept of supper clubs throughout London where you’ll train with the girls and then get fed by me.  Any level of fitness and no fancy gym gear required, but I will make you all eat my food! Just bring a smile and we’ll take care of the rest!

Fancy a corporate supper club with me and the girls to improve the health of your workforce?  Get in touch!

You can contact me through the website or at rob@robhobson.co.uk
You can also contact me or the Soul Sisters via Instagram:

Soul Sisters Fitness

Rob Hobson Nutritionist

Here’s a quick snapshot of our first video..

 

You can access the full video at our YouTube pages (Cooking With Soul page to come)

Soul Sisters Fitness

Rob Hobson Nutritionist

Come and get involved.  Start Cooking With Soul!

Rob, Alex and Maddie x